MINISTRY

[ John Wesley Etheridge, Semitic scholar. ] Autograph Letter Signed ('J. W. Etheridge'), regarding the identity of a correspondent of Dr Adam Clarke.

Author: 
J. W. Etheridge [ John Wesley Etheridge ] (1804-1866), Wesleyan Methodist minister and Semitic scholar [ Adam Clarke (1762-1832), Wesleyan Methodist minister and scholar ]
Publication details: 
St Austell. 30 October 1863.
£65.00

1p., 12mo. In good condition, lightly aged. 23 lines of text in a neat and distinctive hand. The male recipient is not identified. Had Etheridge not been 'much from home on one journey after another', he would have written before. 'I have been referring to my papers, but find nothing that will give you any certain information about the lady to whom Dr Clarke's letter is addressed, except that her husband was connected with the civil service in India, though about even that I am not absolutely sure.' He was given 'some particulars relative to Mrs Tompkin's family' by the 'late Mrs.

[ Waldorf Astor, 2nd Viscount Astor. ] Typed Letter Signed, as Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Food, to Mrs. B. Le Cras, defending Sir Eyre Crowe against the charge of being too soft on the Germans.

Author: 
Waldorf Astor, 2nd Viscount Astor (1879-1952), American-born English politician and newspaper proprietor [ Sir Eyre Crowe (1864-1925), diplomat ]
Publication details: 
On letterhead of the Ministry of Food, Palace Chambers, Westminster, London, S.W.1. 23 January 1919.
£65.00

1p., 4to. In fair condition, on lightly aged and worn paper. His reply to her letter has been delayed by his 'absence in Paris on official business'. He is 'satisfied that the attacks upon Sir Eyre Crowe are based upon entire ignorance of the facts'. Crowe 'has always held strongly anti-German views and expressed himself officially in this sense as long ago as 1908'. Astor understands 'that the Kaiser personally requested his removal from the Foreign Office for this reason on more than one occasion'.

[ Ralph Reader's 'theatrical Pageant' 'Wings' (written by John Pudney), sponsored by the Air Council (Air Ministry, R.A.F. Theatre Pageant Unit). ] Material including correspondence, press releases, programmes, from papers of W. J. Macqueen-Pope.

Author: 
R.A.F. Theatre Pageant Unit; Royal Air Force; Air Ministry, London; John Pudney (1909-77), author; Ralph Reader (1903-82), theatrical impressario; W. J. Macqueen-Pope (1888-1960), theatre historian ]
Publication details: 
All items from 1947. From various locations in England, including the following in London: The Air Ministry, Adastral House. W. J. Macqueen-Pope, 359 Strand. Ralph Reader Limited, Astoria House, Shaftesbury Avenue, London.
£1,500.00

It seems curious that so little information should have survived regarding this 'mammoth show', one of Ralph Reader's 'gigantic pageants', 'sponsored by the Air Council' in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War, performed at the Royal Albert Hall and in the provinces, and in which Tony Hancock played an early and prominent part (in four roles, see Item Nine below).

[ Printed pamphlet on First World War military disability. ] Disabled Sailors and Soldiers. How they are being Re-built at the Nation's Cost.

Author: 
Ministry of Pensions, London [ John Hodge (1855-1937), Labour politician, first Minister of Labour (1916-1917) and second Minister of Pensions (1917-1919); First World War; military disability ]
Publication details: 
'Ministry of Pensions - Official.' [ London ] Printed by 'D & S' in November 1917 ('11/17'). [ '(13715). Wt. 2275 - G 93, 200 m, 11/17. D & S. E 1256.' ]
£65.00

16pp., 16mo. Stapled pamphlet. Aged and worn, with rusted staple. Inside the front cover are quotations from Hodge and his predecessor as Minister of Pensions G. N. Barnes. Initial note: 'The following pages contain a general and necessarily brief description of the system followed by the Pensions Ministry.

[ HM Airship R100. ] Printed 'Contract For the Construction of a Rigid Airship', between the Airship Guarantee Company Limited and the President of the Air Council. With section deleted and replaced with typed passage.

Author: 
HM Airship R100 [ The Airship Guarantee Company Limited, London; The Air Council; Charles Reginald Brigstocke, Director of Contracts Air Ministry; Vickers Ltd]
Publication details: 
"50 cop[ie]s" [no other copy traced [ The Airship Guarantee Company Limited, London; the Air Council; the Air Ministry. ] Printed in London by Duiprose, Bateman & Co., Courts Press, Sheffield Street, Kingsway, W.C.2. Dated 22nd October 1924.
£1,200.00

The R100 had not been named at the time of this item, and is consequently not referred to by name in it. It was built (as part of a British government programme to develop airships to provide passenger and mail transport within the British Empire) by the Airship Guarantee Company, a specially-created subsidiary of the armaments firm Vickers, led by Commander Dennis Burney, with the design team headed by Barnes Wallis, later famous for his invention of the bouncing bomb, with Neville Shute. 41pp., 8vo.

[ J. B. Platnauer. ] Typed Letter Signed ('Plat') to theatre historian W. Macqueen-Pope ('Popey'), accompanying a typescript of his unpublished pseudonymous play 'David and Jonathan'.

Author: 
'Dick M. Adelar' (pseudonym of J. B. Platnauer) [ W. Macqueen-Pope [ Walter James Macqueen-Pope ] (1888-1960), theatre manager and historian ]
Publication details: 
Letter from the Ministry of Works Press Office, on government letterhead of Lambeth Bridge House, London. 7 May 1946. Typescript undated, to be returned to Platnauer at 43 Arlington Lodge, Baytree Rd, London SW2.
£220.00

ONE: Letter: 1p., 12mo. In good condition. Pope's 'stimulating verve' over 'an excellent lunch', at which 'Stoll' (a member of the family of Sir Oswald Stoll) was present, emboldens Platnauer to hope that his play might be 'a commercial success, despite the admittedly rational principles upon which theatrical choice is based today? Tastes change - usually before the pundits are aware of it.

[Printed item.] British Medical Students Association. 1942-1943.

Author: 
[Professor J. A. Ryle, Honorary President, British Medical Students Association] [British Medical Association [BMA]]
Publication details: 
B.M.A. House, Tavistock Square, London, W.C.1. [1942 for 1943.]
£100.00

[2] + 14pp., 8vo. In white printed wraps. In fair condition, on lightly-aged paper, with vertical fold. Printed 'Entry Form' on postcard loosely inserted. Divided into four sections: Foreword [by Ryle]; Constitution; Schedules to Constitution; Report on Inaugural Meeting of the Association; Ministry of Health Letter. Scarce: no copy located on either COPAC or OCLC WorldCat. From a small archive of material belonging to Daphne Kayton of the Royal Army Medical Corps.

[Printed 'University of London Institute of Education' pamphlet.] John Adams. A Lecture in his Memory. Being the Second John Adams Lecture given in the Institute.

Author: 
Sir Michael Sadler, K.C.S.I., C.B., Litt.D., LL.D., Master of University College, Oxford [University of London Institute of Education; John Adams Lecture]
Publication details: 
[University of London Institute of Education.] Published for the Institute of Education by Oxford University Press. London: Humphrey Milford. 1935.
£80.00

18 + [1]pp., 4to. In grey printed wraps. In good condition, on lightly-aged paper, in worn wraps. Stamps, shelfmarks and label of the Ministry of Education Reference Library, London. Seven copies on COPAC.

[Printed 'University of London Institute of Education' pamphlet.] Thomas George Tibbey. A Lecture in his Memory. Being the First Tibbey Memorial Lecture given in the Institute.

Author: 
P. B. Ballard, M.A., D.Litt., Formerly Divisional Inspector under the London County Council [University of London Institute of Education; Thomas George Tibbey Lecture]
Publication details: 
[University of London Institute of Education.] Published for the Insitute of Education by Oxford University Press. London: Humphrey Milford. 1936.
£50.00

19 + [1]pp., 4to. In grey printed wraps. In good condition, on lightly-aged paper, in worn wraps. Stamps, shelfmarks and label of the Ministry of Education Reference Library, London. Seven copies on COPAC.

[Printed 'University of London Institute of Education' pamphlet.] Education and U.N.E.S.C.O. Being a Lecture deliverd in the Institute.

Author: 
Professor Howard E. Wilson, Deputy Executive Secretary of U.N.E.S.C.O., Formerly Professor of Education in the University of Harvard [University of London Institute of Education]
Publication details: 
[University of London Institute of Education.] London, New York, Toronto: Published for The Institute of Education by Geoffrey Cumberlege, Oxford University Press. 1946.
£50.00

19 + [1]pp., 8vo. In grey printed wraps. In good condition, on lightly-aged paper, in worn wraps. Stamps, shelfmarks and label of the Ministry of Education Reference Library, London. Nine copies on COPAC.

[Printed 'University of London Institute of Education' pamphlet.] Quebec and South Africa. A Study in Cultural Adjustment. A Lecture given in the Institute.

Author: 
F. Clarke, M.A., Professor of Education in McGill University, Montreal [University of London Institute of Education]
Publication details: 
[University of London Institute of Education.] Published for the Institute of Education by Oxford University Press. London: Humphrey Milford. 1934.
£80.00

29 + [1]pp., 4to. In grey printed wraps. In good condition, on lightly-aged paper, in worn wraps. Stamps, shelfmarks and label of the Ministry of Education Reference Library, London. Eight copies on COPAC.

[Printed pamphlet.] Association of Technical Institutions. Paper read at the Annual General Meeting Friday, 26th February, and Saturday, 27th February, 1937 on "Salesmanship".

Author: 
F. Hickinbotham, J.P. (Birmingham Central Technical College and the City of Birmingham Commercial College)
Publication details: 
[Echo Press, Ltd., Loughborough.] [1937.]
£75.00

6pp., 12mo. In green printed wraps. In fair condition, on lightly-aged paper, with shelfmarks, stamps and label of the Board of Education Reference Library, London. Printed voting slip (1p., 12mo, creased) of the 'Association of Technical Institutions. Election of Council, 1937.' loosely inserted. Scarce: no copy in the British Library or on OCLC WorldCat, and only two copies on COPAC.

[Printed booklet in 'Laurie's Kensington Series.'] A Scheme of Moral Instruction For Teachers in Public Elementary Schools.

Author: 
E. R. Bernard [Edward Russell Bernard], M.A., Canon of Salisbury, editor
Publication details: 
[Laurie's Kensington Series.] Second edition revised. John Davis, Successor to Thomas Laurie, 13, Paternoster Row, London. 1908. [Bennett Brothers, Printers, Journal Office, Salisbury.]
£50.00

57 + [1]pp., 12mo. In green quarter-binding, with cloth spine and paper boards, with title printed on front board. In good condition, lightly-aged, with shelfmark, stamps and label of the Board of Education Reference Library, London. The only copy of this second edition on COPAC or OCLC WorldCat at the British Library.

[Printed 'University of London Institute of Education' pamphlet.] Educational Problems in the Far and Near East. Three Lectures delivered in the Institute.

Author: 
C. H. Becker, Sometime Professor in the University of Berlin and Kultus-Minister in Prussia [University of London Institute of Education]
Publication details: 
[University of London Institute of Education.] Published for the Institute of Education by Oxford University Press. London: Humphrey Milford. 1933.
£60.00

44pp., 4to. With frontispiece photographic portrait of the author. In grey printed wraps. In fair condition, on lightly-aged paper in loose front and back wraps detached from one another. Stamps, shelfmarks and label of the Ministry of Education Reference Library, London. Six copies on COPAC.

[Printed pamphlet.] The Report of the Committee of the Baptist College at Regent's Park for 1919-1920, with a List of Subscriptions & Donations. [Regent's Park College (University of London). Report For the Year ending September 30th, 1920.]

Author: 
[The Baptist College at Regent's Park, Founded at Stepney, A.D. 1810, Removed to Regent's Park, 1856; Regent's Park College (University of London)]
Publication details: 
London: Printed by Warren Hall & Lovitt, 88 and 90, Camden Road, N.W. 1920.
£65.00

28pp., 12mo. Frontispiece photographic view of the college. Stitched. In grey printed wraps. In fair condition, on aged paper, in worn wraps. Scarce: no copies on COPAC or OCLC WorldCat.

[Printed pamphlet.] The Teaching of International Relations in Schools. An Enquiry into Methods and Principles.

Author: 
[The Friends' Guild of Teachers, Yorkshire; Friends' School, Great Ayton, Yorks]
Publication details: 
Published by the Friends' Guild of Teachers. [Additional Copies can be obtained from the Secretary, Friends' School, Great Ayton, Yorks.] [Printed by J. Atkinson & Sons, Star Works, Pontefract.]
£60.00

29pp., 12mo. In fair condition, on lightly-aged paper, with wear to front cover and slight rusting to staples. Shelfmarks, stamps and label of the Board of Education Reference Library, London. Scarce: no copies on COPAC or OCLC WorldCat.

Three printed items relating to Stranmillis Training College, Belfast: 'Syllabus 1927-1928'; 'Prospectus'; and 'Government of Norther Ireland. Ministry of Education. Stranmillis Technical College. Programme. 1930-32-32'.

Author: 
[Stranmillis Training College, Belfast; Government of Northern Ireland, Ministry of Education]
Publication details: 
Syllabus, printed by 'N. W. Ltd.', dated '5/28' [May 1928]; Prospectus, also printed by 'N. W. Ltd.', dated '7/28' [July 1928]; Programme, printed by 'W. & G. B. Ltd.', dated '11 30' [November 1930].
£100.00

The three items attached to one another by ribbon through punch holes in top inner corners. All three items in fair condition, aged and worn, and carrying shelfmarks, stamps and labels of the Board of Education Reference Library, London. Syllabus: 9pp., 8vo. In cream card wraps with photograph of the College on front cover. Prospectus: 7pp., small 4to. Programme: 21pp., 8vo. With photographic frontispiece of the College. In blue printed wraps. Scarce.

[Printed pamphlet.] Ministry of Education for Northern Ireland. Interim Report of the Departmental Committee on the Educational Services in Northern Ireland. Presented by Command of His Excellency The Lord Lieutenant.

Author: 
[Ministry of Education for Northern Ireland; Charles Stewart Henry Vane-Tempest-Stewart (1878-1949), 7th Marquess of Londonderry, Minister of Education (Northern Ireland) from 1921 to 1926]
Publication details: 
Ordered by the House of Commons to be Printed. Belfast: Published by His Majesty's Stationery Office on behalf of the Government of Northern Ireland. [1922.]
£80.00

104pp., 8vo. In blue printed wraps. In fair condition, on aged paper, with rusted staples and one dogeared corner. Shelfmarks, stamps and labels of the Board of Education Reference Library, London. Scarce.

[Printed pamphlet.] Ministry of Education for Northern Ireland. Final Report of the Departmental Committee on the Educational Services in Northern Ireland. Presented by Command of His Grace the Governor of Northern Ireland.

Author: 
[Ministry of Education for Norther Ireland; Charles Stewart Henry Vane-Tempest-Stewart (1878-1949), 7th Marquess of Londonderry, Minister of Education (Northern Ireland) from 1921 to 1926]
Publication details: 
Belfast: Published by His Majesty's Stationery Office on behalf of the Government of Northern Ireland. [1921.]
£100.00

126pp., 8vo. In blue printed wraps. On aged and lightly damp-stained paper, in heavily chipped and worn wraps, with rusted staples. Shelfmarks, stamp and label of the Board of Education Reference Library, London. Scarce.

[Printed item.] Project of a Statute for the General Educational Scholastic Establishments of the Ministry of Public Instruction.

Author: 
[MInistry of Public Instruction, St. Petersburg, Russia] [Russian Empire]
Publication details: 
St. Petersburg. 1862. London: Printed by John Brittan & Son, Mitre Court, Temple. [London]
£220.00

[5] + 106pp., 4to. On aged and worn paper, in damaged and heavily-worn printed wraps. Stamps, shelfmark and labels of the Board of Education Reference Library. Entirely in English, and with no explanation of why it should be so. Scarce: the only copies on COPAC at the British Library, Oxford and Cambridge, with OCLC WorldCat only adding a fourth copy at Leipzig.

[Duplicated typescript of humorous poem, marked 'SECRET | Official Use only!'] The Air Ministry Who's Who.

Author: 
[The Air Ministry, Whitehall, London, government department dealing with the Royal Air Force between 1918 and 1964]
Publication details: 
Without place or date. [The Air Ministry, Whitehall, London. 1940s?]
£80.00

2pp., 8vo. In fair condition, on lightly-aged paper, with small ink stains to two corners and short closed tears at the ends of a central vertical crease line. On paper with 'Ellams 22' watermark. Beneath the title: 'Note: All names guaranteed genuine, from the "London" section of the October telephone directory.' The poem consists of seven four-line verses and six different choruses.

[Pamphlet] Race Renewal. The Ideal of a Ministry of Health.

Author: 
Dr. C.W. Saleeby [Pelican Press; Francis Meynell; Stanley Morison]
Publication details: 
Published by the National Council of Public Morals for Great and Greater Britain and the National Birth-Rate Commission [...], Printed at the Pelican Press, [1918].
£135.00

10pp., 8vo, printed paper wraps, stapled as issued (rusty), The officers of the National Council of Public Morals are listed on the back cover, Publications, inside back cover. good condition. Saleeby's significant achievements in the world of medicine are described in the DNB. The printers of this pamphlet were the significant firm of the Pelican Press, founded by Francis Meynell, but run at this time (1918) by Stanley Morison.

Typescript of report of speech by Lord Chorley [Robert Samuel Theodore Chorley, 1st Baron Chorley], titled 'The Role of National Service in the Modern State'.

Author: 
Robert Samuel Theodore Chorley (1895-1978), 1st Baron Chorley QC, British jurist and Labour politician [National Service; the civil servant]
Publication details: 
[1952.]
£70.00

5pp., foolscap 8vo, each on a separate leaf. Fair, on aged paper, stapled together in one corner, but with the last leaf detached. The subject is not compulsory military service but the role of the civil servant (see the conclusion, quoted below). The first paragraph reads: 'Lord Chorley said that there is a close connection between the sort of function which the machinery of government performs in any society and the civil service which is required in that society.

Copy of typed notes by the British jurist and Labour politician Lord Chorley [Robert Samuel Theodore Chorley, 1st Baron Chorley] for a talk by him as part of a discussion on the role of the British civil service.

Author: 
Robert Samuel Theodore Chorley (1895-1978), 1st Baron Chorley QC, British jurist and Labour politician [National Service; the civil servant]
Publication details: 
[1952.]
£80.00

11pp., 4to. In fair condition, on aged paper, with a couple of manuscript emendations. Without title, date or author's name. Can be dated to 1952 from comment on p.9: 'Power of Service enormously greater in 1952 than in 1852 - both individually and collectively.' Chorley's authorship is clear from the context: on the second page he recalls that he was 'a temporary Civil Servant in the first world war', and the document concludes: 'Suspect chosen because identified with Chorley Report - no responsibility beyond that of other members of the Committee.

Typed Letter Signed ('Woolton') from Lord Woolton [Frederick James Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton] to fellow Labour politician Lord Chorley [Robert Samuel Theodore Chorley], contesting figures given by him in a House of Lords speech on education.

Author: 
Frederick James Marquis (1883-1964), 1st Earl of Woolton [Lord Woolton], businessman and Labour politician [Robert Samuel Theodore Chorley (1895-1978), 1st Baron Chorley; Ministry of Education]
Publication details: 
On his letterhead as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Treasury Chambers, Great George Street, SW1. 21 February 1955.
£56.00

2pp., 4to. 46 lines. Fair, on lightly-aged paper. He begins: 'Since you spoke in the Education Debate in the House of Lords on the 9th February I have been meaning to take up with you a controversial point to which I did not refer in reply since you were not in the House.' He quotes a passage in which Chorley 'dealt with University students', giving detailed reasons for contesting his 'figures about awards'.

Autograph Letter Signed ('J. R. Clynes') from the Labour Party politician John Robert Clynes to his colleague the future spin-doctor Walton, announcing his appointment by Lloyd George as Minister of Food Control.

Author: 
J. R. Clynes [John Robert Clynes] (1869-1949), leader of British Labour Party, 1921-2; Home Secretary, 1929-31; Manchester Member of Parliament [Sydney Walton (1882-1964), journalist and publicist]
Publication details: 
On letterhead of the Ministry of Food, Palace Chambers, Westminster, SW1. 9 July 1918.
£56.00

2pp., 4to. 20 lines. Good, on lightly-aged paper. At the time of writing Walton is recovering from a serious illness, and Clynes urges him not to 'hurry back at any risk to your health', and to 'take note of some of the advice you have given me not to over-work & break down'. Clynes reports that he has 'just come away from the P. M. [Lloyd George]', and that he has 'agreed to take on the full work [as Minister of Food Control].

Autograph Letter Signed ('W B Sprague') from the American Congregational clergyman and author Rev. Dr W. B. Sprague [William Buell Sprague], in part a letter of introduction for Solomon Stoddard of Northampton, Massachusetts

Author: 
Rev. Dr W. B. Sprague [William Buell Sprague] (1795-1876) of Albany, New York, Yale-educated American Congregational and Presbyterian clergyman and compiler of Annals of the American Pulpit
Publication details: 
Albany [New York]. 13 April 1832.
£120.00

1p., 4to. Fair, on lightly-aged paper, laid down on the remains of a leaf of grey paper from an album. Sprague has only just received his recipient's letter, 'with its invaluable accompaniment', presuming that it was detained at New York for more than two months. He will send a proper letter in a fortnight; in the meantime he writes 'to introduce to you my worthy and much respected friend Mr Solomon Stoddard of Northampton, a direct descendant of the venerable divine whose name he bears [i.e.

Typed Letter Signed from J. B. Priestley to E. M. Forster, accusing him of being 'in the wrong' regarding a Society of Authors questionnaire on National Service. With Autograph Copy and Typed Copy by Forster of letters by him to the Society.

Author: 
J. B. Priestley [E. M. Forster; Denys Kilham Roberts (1903-1976), of the Society of Authors]
Publication details: 
Priestley's letter to Forster: 3 The Grove, Highgate Village, London; 25 May 1939.
£400.00

Forster's main objection is that the National Service questionnaire, sent out by the Society of Authors 'at the suggestion of the Ministry of Labour', asks members to 'give general particulars of their political opinions' (see Hansard, 25 May 1939). Four items. ONE. Priestley's letter, addressed to 'My dear Forster' by 'J. B. Priestley'. 1 p, 4to. Twenty lines. Fair, on aged paper.

Mimeographed paper by G.D.H. Cole and Arthur Henderson titled 'Memorandum on the causes of and remedies for Labour unrest, presented by the Trade Union Representatives on the Joint Committee appointed at the National Industrial Conference [...]'.

Author: 
G. D. H. Cole [George Douglas Howard Cole] (1889-1959), economist and historian; Arthur Henderson (1863-1935), three-time leader of the British Labour Party and recipient of the Nobel peace prize
Memorandum on the causes of and remedies for Labour unrest,
Publication details: 
'[...] at the National Industrial Conference held at the Central Hall, London on February 27th, 1919.'
£580.00
Memorandum on the causes of and remedies for Labour unrest,

Mimeographed typescript. Folio, 19 pp, each on a separate leaf. In worn green 'Ministry of Munitions of War. Branch Memorandum' folder. Text clear and complete. Fair, on aged paper, with slight damage to some corners from rusty paperclip. Signed in type 'ARTHUR HENDERSON, CHAIRMAN. | G.D.H. COLE, SECRETARY'. Headed in manuscript 'Memorandum by Mr. Henderson & Mr Cole.' A scarce, historic document in the history of British politics, addressing what its authors claim to be 'the most wide-spread and deep-seated unrest that has ever been known in this country'.

[Bound mimeographed book, with full-page photographs, inscribed by the author.] 'Ivy Gladys Tennyson by C. T. [her husband Sir Charles Tennyson]'.

Author: 
Sir Charles Tennyson [Sir Charles Bruce Locker Tennyson] (1879-1977), grandson of the poet Alfred Lord Tennyson [Dame Ivy Gladys Tennyson (1880-1958), nee Pretious]
Ivy Gladys Tennyson by C. T.
Publication details: 
Privately printed. Undated. [Inscription dated December 1960.]
£250.00
Ivy Gladys Tennyson by C. T.

4to, [i] + 74 pp. Title-page and 74 numbered pages. Each page on the recto of a leaf, with the verso blank. With two full-page photographs (full-length portrait of Ivy in her wedding gown, July 1909; and picture of the couple 'From a portrait by Anthony Devas October 1950') laid down on blank leaves. Tied with green ribbon. Clear and complete. Internally in good condition, on lightly-aged paper; binding creased and repaired with tape. Inscribed by Sir Charles Tennyson on inside of front cover 'Jill from | with much love | Dec. 1960'.

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