POOR

[ Herefordshire Mendicity Society 'Bread Tickets'. ] Autograph Letter Signed from Stanhope to Sir Richard Harington, discussing 'the system of handing bread tickets to subscribers'. With printed tickets, pass, and AGM report.

Author: 
E. S. Stanhope [ Evelyn Theodore Scudamore-Stanhope ] (1862-1925), Chief Constable of Herefordshire and Chairman of Committee, Herefordshire Mendicity Society [ Sir Richard Harington (1835-1911) ]
Publication details: 
Stanhope's letter on letterhead of the Chief Constable's Office, Shire Hall, Hereford; 19 April 1906. Printed AGM report dated 15 January 1906. Other items undated.
£280.00

Five items, all in good condition, lightly aged. ONE: ALS from 'E. S. Stanhope' to Sir Richard Harington. 4pp., 12mo. Bifolium. The letter begins with thanks to Harington for 'all the trouble you have taken' on an unspecified matter, with Stanhope reporting that he has posted Harington's letter to the Lord Chief Justice. 'I think it explains admirably what we desire to know and I only hope we may get the opinion of the Judges on the question.' He next turns to the question of the AGM, discussing the circumstances under which extraordinary meetings might be called.

[ The Poor Law Amendment Act, 1834 ] Printed 'Order for the keeping, examining, and auditing of the Accounts of the above Union, and of the several Parishes of which it is composed.

Author: 
J. G. S. Lefevre and Geo. Nicholls, Poor Law Commissioners [ Brixworth Union, Northamptonshire, Old or Wold Parish; Rev. Richard Harington; Poor Law Amendment Act, 1834 ]
Publication details: 
Poor Law Commission, London. [14] November 1835. [ London: Printed by William Clowes and Sons, 14, Charing Cross. ]
£400.00

A significant document, being the first government instruction manual for the completing of accounts folllowing the great changes ushered in by the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834. 30pp., 8vo. Stitched and unbound. In fair condition, on aged and worn paper, with vertical closed tear to foot of first leaf. Embossed seal on red paper of the Poor Law Commission of England and Wales on front page, together with red 'Office Copy' stamp. The word 'Brixworth' has been added in manuscript on the first page, with 'Old or Wold' above it.

[ Poor Law Amendment Act, 1834. ] 30 documents (20 printed and 10 in manuscript) relating to the Old or Wold Parish, Brixworth Union, Northants, including forms, notrices, returns, correspondence.

Author: 
Brixworth Union, Northamptonshire, Old or Wold Parish; Rev. Richard Harington; Poor Law Amendment Act, 1834; J. G. S. Lefevre, T. F. Lewis and G. Nicholls; Richard Earle ]
Publication details: 
The Poor Law Commission for England and Wales, London. Old or Wold Parish, Brixworth Union, Northamptonshire. Dating from between 1835 and 1840.
£5,000.00

30 documents, 20 printed and 10 in manuscript. In good overall condition, on aged paper, with slight wear to some items. A significant and interesting collection, from the papers of Rev. Richard Harington (1800-1853, later Principal of Brasenose College, Oxford), Guardian of the Poor in the Parish of Old or Wold, Brixworth Union, Northamptonshire.

[ Printed item. ] Annual Circular To the Churchwardens, Overseers, and other Officers required to account for the Expenditure of Poor Rates. 1840.

Author: 
Edwin Chadwick, Secretary, Poor Law Commission [ London ]
Publication details: 
Poor Law Commission Office, Somerset House [ London ]. 1840. [ 'By Authority: - J. Hartnell, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street.' ]
£280.00

7pp., folio. An unbound and unopened half-sheet. Facsimile of Chadwick's signature at end. An interesting document, in twenty-six numbered sections, laying out the duties of the parish officers with regard auditing of the quarterly Poor Rates accounts.

[ Richard Oastler, factory reformer. ] Autograph Letter Signed to his daughter Maria, wishing her a happy new year from the Fleet Prison, and describing the meal he has eaten there.

Author: 
Richard Oastler (1789-1861), abolitionist, factory reformer ('The Factory King') and Tory radical
Publication details: 
'The Queen's Prison [i.e. the Fleet Prison ] | Jany. 1. 1843.'
£150.00

1p., 4to. In fair condition, on aged and worn paper, with slight damage to corners caused by removal from album. For the context of the letter, see Oastler's entry in the Oxford DNB, which explains that he was nearing the end of a three and a half year sentence at the Fleet Prison, for 'debts accumulated during his stewardship at Fixby', the charge being a 'Pretext', his 'campaign against the new poor law' having proved 'incendiary'. The letter begins: 'Maria! | This comes from thy own Papa, to wish thee a Happy new Year.

[ Pamphlet. ] Why Men Strike or, Strikes and how to get rid of them. A Lecture by Dr. Edward McGlynn.

Author: 
Dr. Edward McGlynn [ The Anti-Poverty Society, New York ]
Publication details: 
London: William Reeves, 185, Fleet Street, E.C. [ Circa 1889. ]
£80.00

14 + [2] pp., 12mo. Disbound without covers. In fair condition, lightly aged and worn. 'Delivered under the auspices of the Anti-Poverty Society at the Cooper Institute, New York, on Sunday, March 3, 1889, for the benefit of the Street-Car Drivers and Conductors out of employment through the late strike.' Scarce: the only copy on COPAC in Oxford.

[ Pamphlet. ] The Robbery of the Poor.

Author: 
William H. P. Campbell [ The Modern Press, Paternoster Row, London ]
Publication details: 
London: The Modern Press, 13 and 14, Paternoster Row, E.C. 1884:
£56.00

54pp., 12mo. Disbound without covers. In good condition, on aged paper. Dedication: 'To | The Poor of England, | This Pamphlet is dedicated | By ONE | Who would hasten the coming of the Day | When we shall not [last word underlined] have them | With us.' He concludes with 'one word' to those who think that 'what we believe in as possible is a splendid Utopia that can never exist, a pleasant dream that shall never be realised': 'Have it so, if you please.

[ Poor Rates in Devon, 1819. ] Handbill 'Poor Rates' notice by H. Roberts, Governor, Hospital of Poor's Portion, Plymouth, regarding the examination of 'the Receipts of the Collectors'.

Author: 
H. Roberts, Governor, Hospital of Poor's Portion, Plymouth [ Poor Rates in Devon ]
Publication details: 
'Hospital of Poor's Portion, 23rd August, 1819.' [ 'WILLIAMS, PRINTER AND BOOKSELLER, OLD-TOWN, PLYMOUTH.' ]
£45.00

Printed on one side of a 31.5 x 19.5 cm piece of Britannia laid paper. A fragile piece of ephemera, aged and with heavy wear to extremities. The text is complete, except for loss to the first letter ('P') of the first word ('Poor') on the top line. Text reads: 'Poor Rates. | THE GUARDIANS who were appointed a Committee to examine the Receipts of the Collectors, having compared a great number of Receipts with the Original Rate Book, have the satisfaction to inform the Inhabitants that they are fully satisfied with Messrs.

[Printed pamphlet.] A Contribution towards an Investigation of the changes which have taken place in the condition of the people of the United Kingdom during the eight years extending from the harvest of 1839 to the harvest of 1847; [...]

Author: 
J. T. Danson of the Middle Temple [[John Towne Danson (1817-1898); The Statistical Society, London]
Publication details: 
For private circulation. Read before the Statistical Society, 21st Feb. 1848. London: Printed by M. & W. Collis, 52, Bow Lane, Cheapside. 1848.
£50.00

40pp., 12mo. Stitched and unbound. In good condition, lightly aged and worn, with slight damage to the fore-edge of the findal leaf. The title continues: 'and | An Attempt to develope [sic] the connexion (if any) between the changes observed and the variations occuring during the same period in the prices of the most necessary articles of food.'

[University of London Tutorial Classes for Working People.] Two printed items, including 'Report of the University of London Joint Committee for the Promotion of the Higher Education of Working People on the Work of the Four Years 1909-1913'.

Author: 
[University of London Tutorial Classes for Working People]
Publication details: 
[University of London.] July 1911 and February 1914.
£80.00

Both items with shelfmarks, stamps and labels of the Board of Education Reference Library, London. ONE: 'University of London Tutorial Classes for Working People | Report of the University of London Joint Committee for the Promotion of the Higher Education of Working People on the Work of the Four Years 1909-1913'. February 1914. 23 + [1]pp., 4to. Stitched. In fair condition, on aged and worn paper. The only copies on COPAC and OCLC WorldCat at the British Library and King's College London. TWO: 'University of London.

[Printed pamphlet.] Saorstát Éireann. Report of the Commission on the Relief of the Sick and Destitute Poor, including the Insane Poor.

Author: 
[Saorstát Éireann, Commission on the Relief of the Sick and Destitute Poor, including the Insane Poor]
Publication details: 
Baile Atha Cliath. Dublin. Foillsithe ag Oifig an rSolathair. Published by the Stationery Office. To be purchased through Messrs. Eason and Son, Litd., 40 and 41 Lr. O'Connell Street, Dublin. 1927.
£100.00

163pp., crown 8vo. xiv + [1] + 163pp. Stitched. In cream printed wraps. In fair condition, on lightly aged paper in worn wraps. With shelfmark, stamp and label of the Board of Education Reference Library.

[British Parliamentary Bill.] Poor Relief (Ireland). A Bill To make further Provision with Respect to the Relief of the Destitute Poor in Ireland, and for other Purposes connected therewith. (Prepared and brought in by Mr. Gerald Balfour [...]).

Author: 
[British House of Commons Bill on Irish Education, 1896; Gerald William Balfour, 2nd Earl of Balfour (1853-1945)]
Publication details: 
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, 7 August 1896. Printed by Eyre and Spottiswoode, Printers to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty.
£100.00

19 + [1]pp., crown 8vo. Stitched. In good condition, lightly-aged and with slight staining at head of back cover. With stamps and shelfmarks of the Education Department Library. Scarce: no copies (other than on microfilm) on either OCLC WorldCat or COPAC.

[Printed pamphlet.] Notes on the Condition of Ireland; with a Proposed Remedy. Shewing how the Prosperity of the Country may be increased by the Judicious Introduction of Home Industries.

Author: 
'J. C. B.' [John Caldwell Bloomfield]
Publication details: 
Printer and place not stated. [1882.]
£80.00

15pp., 12mo. Stitched. In good condition, on lightly aged paper. With shelfmark and stamp of the Education Department Library. Signed beneath title on front cover: 'J. C. Bloomfield'. Dedication to 'B. Samuelson, Esq., M.P., F.R.S.' on p.3. Bloomfield was the co-founder of Belleek Pottery. Scarce.

[Printed item.] London County Council: Home Circumstances of "Necessitous" Children in Twelve Selected Schools. Reports by the chairmen of the Sub-Committee on Underfed Children and the Education officer, submitting report by the organisers.

Author: 
[E. A. H. Jay, Chairman of the Sub-Committee on Underfed Children, London County Council; Miss T. M. Morton and Mr. H. D. C. Pepler]
Publication details: 
Jas. Truscott & Son, Ltd., Printers, London, E.C. ['Covering Report' by Jay dated 20 July 1908.]
£220.00

47pp, 4to. On aged and brittle paper, archivally repaired and bound in sturdy modern blue buckram binding by the Ministry of Education Reference Library (whose stamps and labels the volume carries), with white typed label on front board. Binding in very good condition. A detailed report, with numerous tables, and eighteen case studies including financial and other information including 'Teacher's report' and 'Investigator's report'. Scarce: no copies on COPAC or (other than eBooks) on OCLC WorldCat.

[Printed pamphlet.] Fourth Report of the Managing Committee, and of Proceedings at the General Half-Yearly Meeting Of General Council and Friends, held at the Guildhall, Plymouth, 5th December 1871.

Author: 
[Plymouth Mendicity Society, 5, Frankfort Street, Plymouth; Western Daily Mercury; Devon]
Publication details: 
'Reprinted from the Western Daily Mercury, 6th December 1871.' Plymouth: Western Daily Mercury Offices, Frankfort Street.
£120.00

10pp., 12mo. Stitched and unbound. In fair condition, on aged and worn paper. In small type. Scarce: no copy traced. (The Bodleian holds seven of the Society's reports, from the sixteenth (1884) to the twenty-second (1892), but none so early as this one.)

[Printed pamphlet, signed by the author Herbert Broome.] Kingston Union. The Beginning and the End. 1836-1930.

Author: 
Herbert Broome [The Kingston Union; Poor Law Administration]
Publication details: 
Philpott & Co., (Surbiton), Litd., Printers, 40-42 Brighton Road, Surbiton. March 1930.
£120.00

47 + [1]pp., 12mo. Stapled. In brown printed wraps. Signed on the last page of text (p.45) 'Hbt Broome | May 1930', beneath the signature in type 'HERBERT BROOME, | March, 1930.' In fair condition, on aged and stained paper.

[Victorian poor law.] Manuscript volume titled 'An Assessment For the Relief of the Poor Of the Parish of East Langton In the County of Leicester. And for other Purposes chargeable thereon According to Law'.

Author: 
[The Parish of East Langton in the County of Leicester; Poor Law]
Publication details: 
[East Langton, Leicestershire.] 'Made this 26th. Day of April 1841. After the Note of Sixpence in the Pound'. Continued to 18 July 1843.
£280.00

99pp., landscape 8vo. In heavily-worn original black-cloth quarter-binding, with remains of marbled paper on boards. The volume consists of ten quarterly sections, each signed by the churchwarden and overseers, and signed off by two justices of the peace. The first assessment (26 April 1841) records 43 occupiers, and the last (18 July 1843) 55. Each opening is a complete printed form, with 16 columns covering the two pages. In the following example of an entry, the manuscript is given in square brackets: No.

[Nathaniel Tate, one of the overseers of the Parish of Alnwick, Northumberland.] Autograph Letter Signed ('Nath. Tate one of the Overseers') to the overseers of the Parish of Darlington, regarding payment to 'Ann Allison, belonging to this Parish'.

Author: 
Nathaniel Tate, one of the overseers of the Parish of Alnwick, Northumberland [Ann Allison; Darlington Workhouse, County Durham]
Publication details: 
Alnwick. 10 December 1810.
£56.00

1p., 8vo. On a bifolium. Addressed, with postmark, on the reverse of the second leaf: 'To the Overseers of the Parish of Darlington - | Durham'. In fair condition, on lightly aged and worn paper, with two spike holes. The document reads: 'Gentn. | A Single Woman of the Name of Ann Allison, belonging to this Parish is gone to inhabit in your Parish - you will therefore have the goodness to pay her 2/6 pr. Week - from the 28th. Inst.

['The Overseers of the Poor of Leeds' (near Maidstone, Kent).] Itemised manuscript bill to the Overseer Mr Bottle from Burr, Hoar & Burr, attornies, King Street, Maidstone

Author: 
Burr, Hoar & Burr, attornies, King Street, Maidstone, Kent [Mr Bottle, Overseer of the Poor of Leeds, near Maidstone, Kent]
Publication details: 
[Burr, Hoar & Burr, attornies, Maidstone, Kent.] Undated, but covering the period April 1817 to July 1821.
£220.00

3pp., folio. Bifolium. Addressed on reverse of second leaf to 'Mr. Bottle | Overseer | Leeds', with Maidstone postmark, and docketted 'Burr's Bill | £24 14s 8d'. In good condition, on lightly aged and creased paper. Headed 'The Overseers of the Poor of Leeds'. Closely and neatly written, with the forty itemised entries going into unusual detail. The first entry, for 6s 8d, reads: '[April 1817] Att[endin]g. you on Stonham's Son in law hav[in]g. applied to a Magistrate for an Order for relief of his Grandchildren & aftwds upon the Magistrate with you & him & advis[in]g.

[The United Relieving Officers' and Masters' of Workhouses Superannuation Society.] Printed notice of a meeting to found the Society, describing its objects and rates of payment. Signed by temporary secretary William Scudding.

Author: 
The United Relieving Officers' and Masters' of Workhouses Superannuation Society [William Scadding or Scudding, 'Secretary, pro. tem.']
Publication details: 
Thame [Oxfordshire]. 6 November 1837. 'Bradford, Printer, Thame.'
£95.00

2pp., 4to. On first leaf of a bifolium, with reverse of second leaf addressed (with postmarks) to 'The Relieving Officers | Basingstoke Union | Hants'. In good condition, on aged paper. The document carries the signature of 'Wm.

[The Market Street Workhouse, Brighton, Sussex.] Manuscript titled 'A prayer for the poor in the poor House at Brighton'. With note by the author written 38 years later, lamenting the lack of improvement in conditions.

Author: 
[The Market Street Workhouse, Brighton, Sussex]
Publication details: 
Place not stated. February 1801.
£120.00

2pp., 8vo. The prayer is 39 lines long. In fair condition, on aged and worn laid paper with 'GATER' watermark. The prayer begins: 'O. Lord - O.

[Richard Oastler, Tory radical.] Autograph Letter Signed to an unnamed editor, regarding the proof of his 'sayings of last Monday'.

Author: 
Richard Oastler (1789-1861), Tory radical, abolitionist and campaigner for Poor Law reform
Publication details: 
'Mr. Tathams'. 27 March 1839.
£120.00

1p., 12mo. In good condition, on lightly aged and worn paper. He has just 'received notice that the Mansfield meeting will be held on Thursday at 12 o'clock - & the Sutton meeting on Saturday at One O'clock.' He continues: 'If you intend to insert any of my sayings of last Monday, I should feel obliged by a sight of the proof, if consistent with your official regulations'.

[Sir Thomas Dyke Acland.] Autograph Letter Signed ('Thos. Dyke Acland') to an unnamed recipient, explaining how he has ceased to make charitable payments to the widow of an artist 'labouring under loss or decay of sight'.

Author: 
Sir Thomas Dyke Acland (1787-1871), successively Conservative Member of Parliament for Devonshire and North Devon
Publication details: 
From the Waterloo Hotel, on his crested letterhead. 10 June 1863.
£56.00

4pp., 12mo. Bifolium with mourning border. In good condition, on lightly-aged paper, with slight traces of glue from mount along one edge. A hurried letter, illegible at points. 'You will see the name of yr. respectable at the end of the enclosed Petition from My Own Hand. She has no right to refer to me for any further knowledge of herself and her husband, or his position of art - than that of my having understood him to be an artist in a state of much distress, labouring under loss or decay of sight, & that I for some years I might almost , I gave him occasional relief.

['Public Baths for the Working Classes' in Nicolson Square, Edinburgh.] Three items relating to the project, two in manuscript (long circular letter, and accounts with 'Remarks') and printed prospectus.

Author: 
'Public Baths for the Working Classes' in Nicolson Square, Edinburgh; Charles Gardner, Secretary to the Committee; D. McLaren and William Johnston]
Publication details: 
Printed prospectus dated Edinburgh, 14 July 1847. Circular letter from Committee Rooms, Cranston's Temperance Coffee House, High St, Edinburgh; 1 August 1844. Accounts at 12 August 1844.
£450.00

Surprisingly little appears to have been written about the public baths at 12 Nicolson Square, Edinburgh; with no references to it on the Scottish Archives Network. There is however an informative reference to the subject in Francis H. Groome's 'Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland' (1884): 'Good public baths, of various kinds and various extent, for the upper and the middle classes, are in several parts both of the city and its environs. Public baths for the working classes were long a desideratum, though earnestly desired by many of the working classes themselves.

[Isabelle Bogelot, nineteenth-century French women's activist.] Autograph Letter Signed [to the London bookseller Philip Stephen King and his wife]

Author: 
Isabelle Bogelot (1838-1923), French activist, whose Oeuvre des Libérées de Saint-Lazare assisted former inmates of the Paris prison [Philip Stephen King (1819-1908), London parliamentary bookseller]
Publication details: 
4 rue Perrault [Paris]. 19 April 1886.
£90.00

2pp., 12mo. Bifolium. In fair condition, on lightly aged and worn paper. Not having had 'la facilté de profiter de la bonne recommendation de Miss Louisa Hardy', she writes a letter of recommendation for her son, who will be passing through London for a few days: 'c'est lui qui vous portera nos compliments et vous remercira des articles des journaux que vous m'avez fait parvenir et qu'il m'a traduit'.

[Printed act of parliament.] Anno Regni Gulielmi III. Regis Angliae, Scotiae, Franciae & Hiberniae, Septimo & Octavo. At the Parliament begun at Westminster [22 November 1695]. [An Act for Relief of Poor Prisoners for Debt or Damages.]

Author: 
[British Act of Parliament: 'An Act for Relief of Poor Prisoners for Debt or Damages', 22 November 1695]
Publication details: 
London: Printed by Charles Bill, and the Executrix of Thomas Newcomb, deceas'd, Printers to the Kings most Excellent Majesty. 1695.
£180.00

[1] + 14pp., 8vo, with the text paginated 349-359. Disbound. Good, on aged paper. At the head of the title, in a contemporary hand: 'Relief of poor prisoners'. The title carries the royal crest, and reads in full: 'Anno Regni Gulielmi II. Regis Angliae, Scotiae, Franciae & Hiberniae, Septimo & Octavo. | At the Parliament begun at Westminster the Two and twentieth Day of November, Anno Dom. 1695.

Part of Autograph Letter Signed ('Olive Mackirdy') from the Anglo-Indian journalist and philanthropist Olive Christian Malvery, discussing her efforts to raise money for the building of shelters in London for homeless women.

Author: 
Olive Mackirdy [née Olive Christian Malvery] (1877-1914), Anglo-Indian journalist and philanthropist, who raised money for two shelters for homeless women in London
Publication details: 
Place and date not stated (but written after her marriage in 1904).
£120.00

2pp., 12mo. The final leaf of the letter only. In good condition, on lightly-aged paper. A poignant letter, given its author's early death. Regarding 'the Shelter' Mackirdy writes that 'Lady Brassey the Duchess of St Albans Lady Radnor & others have been giving big dinner parties etc for me & I only go in order to meet people who will help with the Shelter. I am not very strong and have such heavy work that now I find I simply cannot indulge my own tastes & enjoy my firends if I am going to do definite work.

[Printed parliamentary paper.] Strand Union Workhouse. Copy of the Report made by R. B. Cane, Esq., Poor Law Inspector, to the Poor Law Board, after an Inquiry held by him on the 4th and 6th June 1866, into certain Allegations made by Matilda Beeton.

Author: 
[R. B. Cane [Richard Basil Cane], Poor Law Inspector; Matilda Beeton, Head Nurse at the Strand Union Workhouse, Cleveland Street, London]
Publication details: 
Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 25 June 1866.
£220.00

28 + [1] pp., 8vo. In fair condition, on aged and lightly-worn paper. P. 1 has the drophead title: 'STRAND UNION WORKHOUSE. | RETURN to an Order of the Honourable The House of Commons, | dated 25 June 1866; - for, | COPY "of the REPORT made by R. B. Crane, Esquire, Poor Law Inspector, to the Poor Law Board, after an Inquiry held by him on the 4th and 6th June 1866, into certain Allegations made by Matilda Beeton, in reference to the Treatment of the Sick in the Strand Union Workhouse." | Poor Law Board, 25 June 1866.

Printed satirical circular 'To the Ratepayers of this Borough', from 'Wm. Buster, Junr.', concerning his supposed election as a Poor Law Guardian.

Author: 
'Wm. Buster, Junr.', pseudonym [English Poor Law Guardians]
Publication details: 
'Dated, May 1, 1851, Castle Villian.'
£95.00

1p., 12mo. In small type. On aged and creased paper. Signed in type: 'Beggar and Flames! | Gentlemen, | If I am not your Bum Bailiffe, [sic] | For any dirty work, | WM. BUSTER, JUNR.' The circumstances surrounding this spoof are unclear. It begins: 'In fact, I feel it a duty devolving upon me, to return you my sincere thanks for the honour you have done me, in electing me one of your Guardians.' The next paragraph concerns 'the slanderous assertion, which certain persons have industriously circulated, detractive of this honour, in fact, that I am the nominee of my own workman'.

Original photograph of the 'First group of boys for Canada from the Hampton Home' [the Hampton Training Home for boys], run by Joseph Merry and his wife Rachel Merry (sister of Annie Macpherson), with George Thom.

Author: 
[The Hampton Training Home for boys [Hampton Home]; George Thom; Joseph Merry and his wife Rachel Merry (sister of Annie Macpherson [Annie Parlane Macpherson]); Home of Industry; Canadian emigration]
Publication details: 
Circa 1870.
£280.00

Landscape photograph, 19.5 x 14.5 cm, laid down on a piece of thin card cut from an album, 18 x 21 cm. Around sixty boys are posed in four rows in front of a grand house, with two masters to the right and two to the left, and with a fifth in the centre of the group. The group are surprisingly fat-faced, posing sulkily in jackets, with some waistcoats and tam o'shanters. Five more boys look out of a downstairs window, three from an upstairs window, and one peeks out from behind the front door.

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