MANUSCRIT

[ African Expeditionary Force ][MS, in French, titled 'Avis de la Commission, chargée de l'étude préparatoire des questions relatives à l'armement des Navires à Vapeur, sur l'embarquement des troupes expeditionnaires à bord de ces Navires.'

Author: 
V. Couchard, J. Houssard, Chopard Fourichon [members of an official Commission of the French Government producing a report on the foundation of a French naval expeditionary force]
Publication details: 
dated 'à la Cote d'Afrique. Paris; le 19 Mars 1849. Les Membres de la Commission, Signée: V. Couchard, J. Houssard, Chopard Fourichon.'
£325.00

Folio, 30 pp. In brown leather half-binding, with marbled boards. One simple pen illustration, p. 18, showing arrangement of 'Muraille' and 'Pont'. Good, on lightly-aged paper, in worn binding. Neatly set out, in a secretarial hand, with a synopsis beside each paragraph in red ink in the widened left-hand margins. As a loosely-inserted printed slip explains in English, the manuscript sets out 'instructions by a French Official Commission for the preparation and arming of a fleet of steam ships to be equipped to carry marines to form an expeditionary force to the coast of Africa.

[ Grand Conde ] Autograph Note Signed to "M d. Billy"? (bottom lefthand corner)

Author: 
Louis de Bourbon, Grand Conde, French General.
Publication details: 
"Au Camp dIpsem[?]", 27 August 1679
£350.00

Five lines, 4to, some foxing not affecting clarity of text, as follows: "Jerome addresse cette despesche pour Mr des [?] fougeraire[?] que je vous prie de luy faire tenir en tout diligence Louis de Bourbon"

[Henri Cernuschi, Italo-French banker and collector.] Autograph Letter Signed to the London parliamentary bookseller Philip Stephen King, apologising for not being able to supply him with autographs, as his collection has been stolen 'toute entière'.

Author: 
Henri Cernuschi [Enrico Cernuschi] (1821-1896), Italo-French banker and collector, whose Paris mansion is now the Musée Cernuschi [Philip Stephen King (1819-1908), London parliamentary bookseller]
Publication details: 
On the letterhead of his Paris mansion at 7 Avenue Velasquez, Parc Monceau [now the Musée Cernuschi]. 29 April [c. 1889].
£120.00

2pp., 12mo. Bifolium. In good condition, on aged paper, with slight wear to one corner. Signed 'H. Cernuschi'. He begins by stating that from King's 'première lettre' he had recognised his handwriting. He apologises for not being able to comply with a request of King's: 'Je possédais une importante collection d'autographes - mais elle m'a été volee toute entière'. He concludes by instructing King to send to Westminster '600 copies de Bimetalism in England aand Abroad et 50 copies de mon Speech a Paris 1889'.

Legal agreement, in French, between Drummond and the Marquise de St. Aulaire, for the leasing by Drummond of the Chateau de Courbeton. Signed by both parties ('Mise De St. Aulaire' and 'Jas Drummond').

Author: 
James Drummond (1767-1851), Viscount Strathallan; Marie Madelaine de St. Janvier, Marquise de Beaupoil de St. Aulaire [Chateau de Courbeton, Seine et Marne, France]
Publication details: 
28 November 1822; Paris.
£85.00

8vo, 1 pp. A long document, closely written in a clerical hand. Text clear and complete. Fair, on aged paper, with slight loss to one corner. Stamped for tax. Signed twice by both parties, and initialled by them on a couple of occasions. Following the defeat of Napoleon, the broken state of the French economy allowed many wealthy Britains to live there. Drummond is described as 'Mr. Jacques Drummond Ecossais Logé ce jour à Paris, Rue St. Honoré No., hôtel Meurice'.

Autograph Letter Signed ('A Guinnard'), in French, to an unnamed male correspondent.

Author: 
Auguste Guinnard, French traveller, who wrote an account of his three-years' captivity in Patagonia [Jules Verne; Pierre Kalfon; Benard]
Publication details: 
7 January 1863. 4 rue St Louis en l'Ile [Paris].
£100.00

8vo, 2 pp. Bifolium. Thirty-two lines of text. Text clear and complete. Good, on lightly-aged and creased paper. It is only now that he is able to thank him for the 'bon accueil que m'a fait Monsieur Benard grâce à votre Gracieuse recommendation'. Benard has lent him 'quelques ouvrages', including 'ceux que vous aviez bien voulu <?> sur la petite note'. He has not had time to look at them, 'pressé que j'etais tout d'abord de vous remettre ceux que vous m'avez bien voulu prêter'. He has not been able to 'les compulser', but has 'sommairement lu le contenu qui je l'espere me suffira'.

Autograph Letter Signed ('Quatremère'), in French, to 'Monsieur Feuillet, Bibliothecaire de l'Institut'.

Author: 
Étienne Marc Quatremère (1782-1857), French Orientalist [Laurent François Feuillet (1768-1843), from 1823 chief librarian of the Institut de France]
Publication details: 
Undated [between 1823 and 1843].
£45.00

12mo: 1 p. Eight lines of text. Fair, on lightly-aged paper. A bifolium, addressed by Quatremère on the reverse of the second leaf. He is returning a work borrowed from the library of the Institut, and asks Feuillet 'de vouloir bien me communiquer le Voyage de l'Anglois en Afrique, et le 5e. volume de la nouvelle histoire des voyages.'

Letter, in a secretarial hand, signed by Cuvier ('Bn G Cuvier'), to 'Mr. Raynal, Proviseur du college Royal de Nismes'. With engraved portrait of Cuvier by T. Richomme, from a drawing by 'Mme Lizinka de Mirbel'.

Author: 
Baron Georges Cuvier [Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier] (1769-1832), French naturalist [Theodore Richomme; Aimée Zoe Lizinka de Mirbel]
Publication details: 
Letter of 2 April 1822; on letterhead of the Conseil royal de l'Instruction publique. Engraving undated (circa 1840?).
£225.00

Letter: Folio (30.5 x 20 cm), 1 p. Bifolium, with text on recto of first leaf and address (with several postmarks) on reverse of second. Five lines. Text clear and complete, with good clear signature. Fair, on aged and lightly-creased paper, with 1.5 cm closed tear in top left-hand corner (not affecting text). The 'Objet de la lettre' is given as 'Envoi d'un Brevet de Pension'. The pension will be paid 'par la Caisse d'Amortissement'. Engraving: Original, on paper 24 x 15.5 cm. Captioned 'G. CUVIER.' A good clear impression on grubby, spotted and lightly-creased paper.

French broadside celebrating the accession of 'Napoléon III, Empereur des Français.', containing a biography, a panegyric poem, and a handcoloured engraved portrait.

Author: 
Pellerin, Imprimeur-Libraire, à Epinal, Vosges, France [Napoléon III, Empereur des Français]
Publication details: 
[1852.] 'Fabrique de PELLERIN, Imprimeur-Libraire, à EPINAL.' [Vosges, France]
£250.00

Printed on one side of a piece of wove paper, dimensions roughly 65 x 41.5 cm. Within a ruled border. On lightly aged paper, with chipping and slight loss to extremities. Three closed tears (two of them affecting the portrait) have been repaired on the reverse with archival tape. Text entirely legible and portrait clear, bright and without loss. The full-length portrait (31 x 25 cm), crudely coloured in yellow, red and blue, depicts the Emperor, in full regalia, standing in a sumptuous throne room. Sixty-six line biography, arranged in two columns.

Autograph Letter Signed ('S. Bannister'), in French, to 'Monsieur de Monglave, l'Institut Historique'.

Author: 
Saxe Bannister (1790-1877), English writer and lawyer, the first Attorney-General of New South Wales [Eugène Garay de Monglave (1796-1873)]
Publication details: 
Au Mai, Jouy, Près Versailles, 23 Juin 1834'.
£85.00

12mo, 4 pp. Bifolium. Good, on lightly aged paper. Addressed to 'Monsieur et Confrère'. He replied to de Monglave's last letters a couple of days previously, and he has addded 'deux ou trois propositions que je vous de traduire en bon François, et de lire à notre comité, au Conseil'. He wants to get to know 'quelques uns de mes voisins dans ce village où j'ai l'intention de passer six mois', and asks for letters of introduction. Lists four families he wishes to get to know and names some individuals with whom he is a little acquainted.

Autograph Letter Signed ('de Tessan'), in French, to 'Monsieur Pingard, Chef du Secretariat de l'Institut'.

Author: 
Urbain Dortet de Tessan (1804-1879), French geographer who between 1836 and 1839 circumnavigated the world
Publication details: 
Paris le 11 Avril 1866'.
£56.00

12mo, 1 p. Good, on lightly aged paper. Asking Pingard, as Secretary of the Institut de France, to convene a meeting of the members of the 'Section de Géographie et Navigation'. Postscript: 'P.S. Je suis, connais vous, près <?> une Jambe.'

Autograph Letter Signed ('Mel. Alcan'), in French, to 'Monsieur le Conseiller d'Etat Commissaire Général'.

Author: 
Michel Alcan (1801-1877), French politician and engineer who made numerous innovations in the field of textiles [Exposition Universelle de 1867, Paris, France]
Publication details: 
Paris le 13. Dbre 1866'.
£65.00

4to (27 x 21 cm), 1 p. Nine lines of text. Text clear and complete on lightly aged, creased and foxed paper. Small closed tear at edge along crease line (not affecting text). Bearing the numbered stamp of the Exposition Universelle de 1867, Commission Imperiale. Accepting the position, conferred on him by the Commission, of 'membre de Jury de l'Exposition dans la 55me. classe': 'J'accepte cette tâche de confiance, et ferai tous mes éfforts pour la remplir avec l'activité reclamée par le reglement concernant les travaux du Jury'.

Autograph Letter Signed ('Philippe de Larenaudière'), in French, to unnamed male editor of a journal.

Author: 
Philippe de Larenaudière [Philippe François de La Renaudière], nineteenth-century French mining engineer, geographer and traveller in the Americas
Publication details: 
Date and place not stated.
£65.00

4to, 1 p. Fourteen lines of text, on the recto of the first leaf of a bifolium. Text clear and complete, on lightly aged and creased paper. Slight staining at foot of text (affecting part of signature), and on the reverse of the second leaf of the bifolium, which is docketed 'la renaudié | A. S.' He is sending an article on 'la Bibliotheque des voyages'. Asks that the article on the work entitled 'Des Beaux arts en Angleterre', 'que Buisson vous adressa il ya prés de Deux mois', be inserted. 'Je vous prie en grace de laisser ma Signature en entier.

Autograph Letter Signed ('C Crapelet'), in French, to 'Monsieur Deterville'

Author: 
Charles Crapelet (1762-1809), French printer, based in Paris
Publication details: 
27 October 1807. [Paris.]
£75.00

12mo: 1 p. Eight lines of text. On a piece of grey laid watermarked paper. Complete and clear. Lightly aged and creased. Unusually frank business communication. He is angry at having to tell Deterville that he cannot have 'd'exemplaire des Rudimens'. He will do his best to let him have them soon. However weak the excuse, it is nevertheless true that the 'ouvriers ne m'ont pas tenu parole'.

Autograph Letter Signed ('Ragoulleau Bouron') to 'Monsieur Guillon, Propriétaire et Maire de Montereau'.

Author: 
[Charles Etienne Ragoulleau (b. 1774)] 'M. Ragoulleau-Bouron, Avocat, Propriétaire et Directeur de l'ancien Bureau royal de Correspondance'
Publication details: 
18 March 1825; on letterhead of the Bureau, with address amended in autograph to 'Rue Ste. Anne No. 41'.
£35.00

4to: 2 pp. 35 lines of text. Good, on aged paper. Text clear and entire. Minor damage to one corner (not affecting text) through breaking open of wafer. He has received the letter with the 'observations de milord', whose 'propositions' are not 'acceptables'. Mentions a 'Mr. Tournal'. How could he offer 'Mr. Gerrard' 'les quatre cent quarante francs proposé par milord et meme les six cent francs fixé par vous?' Mentions Madame la Marquise de Sainte-Aulaire. Suggests a sum which would be acceptable to Gerrard and would thus avoid a trial the success of which would be uncertain.

Autograph Letter Signed ('Cha de Paravey') to the Abbé Guerin, 'chez l'abbé Tesson, aux Millions Etrangeres, Paris'.

Author: 
Charles de Paravey [Charles-Hippolyte de Paravey] (1787-1871), French orientalist, palaeographer and engineer
Publication details: 
12 September 1848; Paris.
£56.00

16mo (13.5 x 10 cm): 2 pp. A bifolium, addressed on the reverse of the second leaf. The first leaf has been slightly trimmed at the bottom, resulting in some loss to the bottom line of the recto. A formal letter in the third person, written in a close, difficult hand. Carefully detailing the missing sections in his copy of the 'Dictionnaire Anamitique-Latin'.

Autograph Letter Signed ('le Cte de Montalembert'), in French, to an unnamed male correspondent.

Author: 
Charles Forbes René de Montalembert (1810-1870), French historian
Publication details: 
3 March 1849; Paris.
£56.00

12mo: 2 pp. Very good on lightly aged paper. Asks if it might be possible, as previously, to forward a packet to 'Mr. d'Abbadie': 'depuis deux ans je suis sans nouvelles de lui'. It is six months since he had the honour of forwarding a similar packet via the French legation at Lisbon. Good firm signature, but with the words '(Le comte de Montalembert)' in another hand beneath it, and interfering with the flourish (paraph).

Autograph Letter Signed ('Ernest Havet'), in French [to someone living in Sainte-Beuve's old house].

Author: 
Eugène Auguste Ernest Havet (1813-1889), French scholar.
Publication details: 
21 February 1872; Vitry.
£56.00

16mo: 1 p. 14 lines of text. Close hand. He is touched that Sainte-Beuve has found time, in the midst of his labours, to write a letter expressing his 'adhésion'. 'Je suis heureux de penser, en vous écrivant rue Montparnasse [Sainte-Beuve lived at no. 11], que la philosophie et l'esprit d'indépendence ont toujours un ami dans la maison de Sainte-Beuve'.

Three Autograph Letters Signed (all 'E. Beulé'), in French, to (severally) Messieurs Jalabert and Duvivier, and an unnamed woman.

Author: 
Charles Ernest Beulé (1826-1874), French archaeologist and politician [Jalabert; Duvivier]
Publication details: 
The letters to Jalabert and Duvivier without date or place; the letter to the woman dated '<?>, 16 Novembre [no year]'.
£100.00

All three letters 12mo. The letter to Jalabert (with a mourning border) is 2 pp, the others 1 p each. All three in good condition. The Jalabert letter (18 lines) mentions his wife and 'M. Goupil'. The Duvivier letter (6 lines) is a letter of introduction to a 'Monsieur Pietsch, artiste distingue de Berlin'. Asks him to give the artist 'toutes les facilités pour visiter l'Hémicycle de Delaroche et la galérie des Plâtres'. The letter to the woman (11 lines). His return has been delayed by the death of the King of Portugal.

Anonymous manuscript report, in French, beginning 'On taxe d'impudence les administrateurs, pour avoir donné un ordre au Cap[itain]e. Blanc pour l'exportation des Negres de la Société Vaudeuil, et surtout pour y avoir fait mention de sa cargaison.'

Author: 
[The slave trade; slavery; Capitaine Blanc; la Société de Vaudeuil; Cayenne, French Guiana; Guadeloupe; Tobago; San Domingo]
Publication details: 
Place and date not stated [Before 1848].
£95.00

4to: 2 pp. 44 lines of text. Neatly written on very good lightly-creased and spotted light-green watermarked laid paper. Apparently an official report. The author begins by pointing out that as the 'ordonnances des Colonies' forbid the exportation of negroes from one French colony to another, such an exportation must be authorised 'd'une maniere autentique par les administrateurs'. Otherwise 'les Negres, le Cape. Blanc, son navire & sa cargaison' could have been seized by the first royal vessel they encountered, or in the first port at which they docked.

Autograph Letter Signed ('Marsy'), in French, to 'Monsieur le Président et Cher Confrère' [Monsieur Théodore Hippert].

Author: 
Arthur, Comte de Marsy (1843-1900), archaeologist, director of the Société française d'Archéologie pour la Conservation des monuments historiques
Publication details: 
15 January 1894; on letterhead of the Société.
£75.00

12mo: 4 pp. Good, on lightly aged and creased paper. 65 lines of text. Discusses, among other matter, the recipient's 'Exposition de Dentelles', a 'voyage à Bruxelles', a 'très agréable reunion à Abbeville', and a trip by 67 members to Kent. Accompanied by a ten-line manuscript biography of de Marsy, in French in a contemporary hand, tipped in onto another slip of paper cut away from the letter's envelope, and bearing the address in de Marsy's hand.

Autograph Letter Signed ('H Fournel'), in French, to unnamed correspondent.

Author: 
Henri Fournel [Henri-Jérôme-Marie Fournel (1799-1876), French civil engineer, geologist and disciple of Saint-Simon] (1799-1876)
Publication details: 
Without date or place.
£150.00

4to: 3 pp. Bifolium. Good on lightly aged and creased paper. Text clear and entire. Eighty lines of text, beginning abruptly, without salutation, 'Vous m'avez demandé ma pensée sur le prospectus que vous avez proposé.

Five Autograph Letters Signed (all 'E. Contambert'), in French: three to Ange de Saint-Priest and one to 'Monsieur le Caissier' of 'L'Encyclopédie'.

Author: 
Pierre-François Eugène Cortambert (1805-1881), geographer, Conservator of the Geographic Section of the Bibliothèque Nationale [Ange de Saint-Priest, editor of 'L'Encyclopédie du Dix-Neuvième Siècle']
Publication details: 
1852, 1874 and two undated.
£125.00

All items in good condition, on lightly aged paper, with text clear and entire. Letter Two with a little light spotting to the recto of the first leaf. Written in a crabbed hand. Concerning contributions by Cortambert to 'L'Encyclopédie'. Letter One (12mo, 3 pp): To 'Monsieur et honorable directeur', 9 July 1852. Letter Two (12mo, 3 pp): To 'Monsieur et honorable directeur', 7 June 1874. Letter Three (12mo, 1 p): To 'Mr de St Priest', undated. Letter Four (8vo, 1 p): To 'Monsieur le Caissier de Encyclopédie du 19e Siècle', Paris, Rue de Saintonge, 64.

Secretarial Letter Signed ('Victor Meunier') to an unnamed male correspondent.

Author: 
Victor Meunier (1817-1903), French author and journalist; editor of 'Cosmos', the 'Revue Synthétique', and 'L’Ami des Sciences'
Publication details: 
Undated; on letterhead of the Revue Synthetique, Paris.
£25.00

12mo, 1 p. Five lines of text. Very good on lightly aged paper. Good firm signature. He is sending the first issue of the 'Revue Synthétique' and proposes an exchange of that magazine for the one that the recipient edits.

Autograph Letter Signed, in French, to unnamed male correspondent.

Author: 
Jacques Herz (1794-1880), French pianist and composer [Sir Charles Lock Eastlake (1793-1865), President of the Royal Academy and first Keeper of the National Gallery]
Publication details: 
Vendredi 11 Mars' [no year]; 23 Bentinck Street, Manchester Square, London.
£56.00

12mo, 2 pp. 12 lines of text. Creased and ruckled, with a little smudging. Difficult hand. Asking the recipient 'd'aller passer une soirée avec nous'. Laid down on a piece of paper which is attached to the blank reverse of the second leaf of the bifolium is a slip of paper (roughly 2 x 9 cm) carrying Eastlake's signature ('always truly yours | [signed] C. L. Eastlake').

Two Autograph Letters Signed (both 'Jaubert') to 'monsieur le Baron Grenier, Procureur général de la Cour Imperiale, membre de la Légion d'honneur à Riom'.

Author: 
Comte François Jaubert (1758-1822), Conseiller d'Etat à Vie; Gouverneur de la Banque de France under the First Empire [Jean, Baron Grenier (1753-1841), Premier Président de la Cour Royale de Riom]
Publication details: 
Letter One: 'Paris, le 27 mai 1811', on letterhead of 'Le Comte de l'Empire, Conseiller d'Etat à Vie, [...]'. Letter Two: 'Paris ce 12 Janvier 1814'.
£150.00

Both items 4to,1 p. Both items good, on lightly aged and foxed paper. Both bifoliums, with the second item addressed, with broken wafer, on verso of second leaf. Both docketed in pencil in a nineteenth-century hand. Letter One (nineteen lines of text): He is grateful to Grenier for sending 'le procès verbal de l'installation de votre Cour'. Grenier was right to think that Jaubert would be interested in 'l'historique d'une cérémonie qui rend aux Cours la dignité convenable à la magistrature, et qui vous touche particulièrement'.

Autograph Letter Signed ('Cte Jaubert'), in French, to 'Messieurs Pichon & Didier, Libraires Commissionaires, quai des Augustins No. 47. Paris.'

Author: 
Comte François Jaubert (1758-1822), Conseiller d'Etat à Vie; Gouverneur de la Banque de France under the First Empire [Pichon et Didier, Paris printers]
jaubert
Publication details: 
Givry, près Fourchambault, par Nevers (Nièvre) 3 Juin 1827'.
£56.00
jaubert

12mo, 1 p. Eighteen lines of text. Good, on aged paper. Address, with broken wafer and two circular postmarks (one in red ink and the other in black) on verso of second leaf of bifolium. Making an order for a periodical publication, and giving instructions for delivery and payment.

Secretarial Letter Signed ('Conde de Funchal'), in French, to 'Mr. Falconet, Avocat Celebre a Paris'.

Author: 
Domingo Antonio de Souza-Coutinho, Conde de Funchal (fl 1803-1833), Portuguese diplomat, Ambassador to England, and botanist [Ambroise Falconet? Jacques Récamier?]
Publication details: 
1 March 1816; Florence, Italy. Carrying postmarks and seal in red wax with impression of family crest.
£85.00

8vo, 2 pp. Twenty-two lines of text. Bifolium. Address, postmark and seal on reverse of otherwise-blank second leaf of bifolium. On aged and lightly creased paper, chipped and foxed. Text clear and entire. Acting on Falconet's advice, the Count has sent 'une Procure en regle à Mr Recamier [husband of the celebrated Madame Récamier?] à fin qu'il puisse retirer l'argenterie des mains de Mr Delamarre à l'expiration des trois mois'. He is grateful for Falconet's assistance in terminating 'cette facheuse affaire'.

Secretarial Letter Signed ('Le Vte. de La Rochefoucauld'), as 'Aide de Camp du Roi, chargé du Département des Beaux Arts', in French, to the editor in chief of the Parisian newspaper 'Le Pilote'.

Author: 
Frédéric Gaëtan, marquis de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt (1779-1863), French aristocrat and polititian [Charles X, Roi de France; 'Le Pilote']
Publication details: 
Paris le 21 Mai 1825', on letterhead of the Ministère de la Maison du Roi. Département des Beaux Arts.
£150.00

Foolscap (roughly 31.5 x 20 cm): 2 pp. Bifolium with blank second leaf. Thirty-one lines of text. On lightly aged and creased paper, with some discoloration and chipping in a thin strip at head (roughly 1.5 cm deep), affecting the date and letterhead but not the text. Text clear and entire. Casting interesting light on early nineteenth-century news management by the authorities in the continental Europe. The letter concerns the coronation of Charles X.

Autograph Letter Signed to 'Monsieur Huot, Rue des Gravelles No. 4. Versailles'.

Author: 
Grégoire-Louis Domeny de Rienzi (1789-1843 or after 1850), French adventurer, illusionist, fantasist, traveller and author
Publication details: 
Paris 10 aout [1830s]'; on letterhead of the Repertoire des Connaissances usuelles, Dictionnaire de la Conversation et de la Lecture.
£85.00

12mo, 3 pp. Forty-four lines of text. Difficult hand. Concerns the printing of one of de Rienzi's works by Huot, to whom de Rienzi will transmit all the printed leaves which have not been published. De Rienzi's works have him fighting at Wagram and Waterloo, for the Greeks in 1818 and 1822, with Bolivar in 1819, with the Carbonari in 1821, and under Mehemet Ali in 1823. After 1830 he was a professor of Geography in Paris. He committed suicide.

Autograph Letter Signed ('E. Cortambert'), in French, to 'Monsieur le Directeur de l’Athenæum français, Rue Mazarine, 9 | Paris'.

Author: 
Pierre-François Eugène Cortambert (1805-1881), French geographer, Conservator of the Geographic Section of the Bibliothèque Nationale
Publication details: 
21 August 1853; Paris postmark.
£35.00

12mo, 2 pp. Bifolium, addressed, with circular postmark in black ink, on otherwise-blank second leaf of bifolium. Correcting 'une petite erreur' which he committed in 'le Comte rendu de la dernière Séance de la Société de Géographie', and which he wishes changed in the report which will be appearing in 'l’Athenæum français'.

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