Military and Naval History

Manuscript Warrant, written on behalf of Admiral Lucius Curtis and signed by him, to Lieutenant Henry A. Norman of HMS Rodney, appointing him lieutenant on the surveying vessel Bonetta.

Author: 
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Lucius Curtis (1786-1869), 2nd Baronet, KCB [Lieutenant Henry A. Norman]
Manuscript Warrant, written on behalf of Admiral Lucius Curtis
Publication details: 
'Given on board the Ceylon at Malta the 3rd. day of July 1847'.
£65.00
Manuscript Warrant, written on behalf of Admiral Lucius Curtis

Folio, 2 pp. On first leaf of bifolium. Neatly written out by a secretary and signed by Curtis and 'W. H. Brown, acting secretary'. Headed 'By Sir Lucius Curtis, Bt. CB. Rear Admiral of the Red Second in Command of H.M. Ships and Vessels, on the Mediterranean Station and Senior Officer during the Absence of the Commander in Chief on Special Service.' Directing Norman to join 'Her Majesty's Surveying Vessel Bonetti' as Lieutenant, 'until the pleasure of Vice Admiral Sir William Parker the Commander in Chief shall be known'

[Handbill] Draft of Resolutions for the Permanent Establishment of a Navy Club

Author: 
[New York Yacht Club?]
Draft of Resolutions for the Permanent Establishment of a Navy Club
Publication details: 
No date [New York Yacht Club founded in 1844]
£280.00
Draft of Resolutions for the Permanent Establishment of a Navy Club

Printed handbill, c.20 x 24.5cm, possibly trimmed, faint foxing, small closed tear, one small stain, mainly good. We, who have hereunto subscruibed our names, do severally agree to unite in forming an Association to be entitled the NAVY CLUB, and to appoint a Committee to frame a Constitution and Laws ... For remaining contents, a scan of this item can be found on my website, richardfordmanuscripts.co.uk

Autograph itemised 'pay Bill for Captain Carrs. Recruiting Party', signed, with receipt, by 'Geo: Deans Serjeant'.

Author: 
[Captain Carr's Recruiting Party, 1778; George Deans, Recruiting Sergeant; the British Army; press gangs]
Autograph itemised 'pay Bill for Captain Carrs. Recruiting Party'
Publication details: 
Receipt dated 28 March 1778.
£45.00
Autograph itemised 'pay Bill for Captain Carrs. Recruiting Party'

12mo, 1 p. Neatly written with six items, beginning with '2 weeks pay for Serjt: Deans and Dr. Marton', and ending with 'Expences Contracted on account of Mc.Dougall'. Includes 'A Cockade for Joseph Harriegat & one for Dr. Harris'. Deans acknowledges receipt of £2 11s. The last item, of 5s is not included in the payment, and the bill is docketed on the reverse '1778 | Serj. Deans Bill a 5s Mist[ak]e.' The identity of the relevant regiment is unclear.

Calling card of Admiral Sir Charles Napier, on which he has written 'Sir Chas Napier | Merchistoun'.

Author: 
Admiral Sir Charles Napier (1786-1860) [Charles John Napier], Royal Navy, of Merchiston [Merchistoun]
Calling card of Admiral Sir Charles Napier
Publication details: 
Without date or place.
£65.00
Calling card of Admiral Sir Charles Napier

On piece of card, 4 x 7 cm. Aged and spotted. Reads 'Sir Chas Napier | Merchistoun', with the words centred as usual. Drawing or floor plan in pencil on reverse. From the Paterson papers.

Autograph Letter Signed ('Jno Colpoys') from Admiral Sir John Colpoys, Governor of Greenwich Hospital, to James Sykes Jnr, regarding arrangements following the death of 'Poor Georgina'.

Author: 
Admiral Sir John Colpoys (c.1742-1821), Governor of Greenwich Hospital [Spithead Mutiny, 1797]
Admiral Sir John Colpoys (c.1742-1821)
Publication details: 
3 June [1800].
£85.00
Admiral Sir John Colpoys (c.1742-1821)

12mo, 2 pp. Bifolium, with the reverse of the second leaf carrying the address ('J. Sykes Esqr: | 22 Arundel Street | Strand', with two postmarks and docketing by Sykes. Nineteen lines. Text clear and complete. On aged paper, with wear to second leaf. Sykes 'will not be surprized to hear' that on the previous day 'Poor Georgina [...] paid the Great Debt'. Colpoys has arranged for her funeral to be 'conducted - in a Decent Private manner', and for her to be buried 'in the Parish of Kensington where she Died - Mr.

Collection of papers relating to the military career of General Sir William Cator, from the Peninsular War to the Crimean War (during which he was Director-General of Artillery). Comprising three commissions, a printed memoir, five manuscript items.

Author: 
General Sir William Cator (1785-1866), K.C.B., Royal Artillery, Director-General of Artillery during the Crimean War [British Army; Peninsular War]
Collection of papers relating to the military career of General Sir William Cato
Publication details: 
London, Constantinople and other places. From c. 1853 to c. 1866.
£450.00
Collection of papers relating to the military career of General Sir William Cato

An short account of Cator's career is to be found in the Gentleman's Magazine for June 1866. This collection of nine items is of particular importance, considering the fact that - remarkably for such a distinguished figure - he was not accorded a Times obituary, and has no entry in the Dictionary of National Biography. The absence of biographical material may be due to the contemporary criticism of Cator's department for its handling of the provision of supplies during the Crimean War. All items in good condition, on lightly-aged paper, with texts clear and complete.

[book about the Korean War by Australian writer Wilfred G. Burchett] This Monstrous War.

Author: 
Wilfred G. Burchett (1911-1983) [Korean War; Australia]
Book about the Korean War by Australian writer Wilfred G. Burchett
Publication details: 
Melbourne: Joseph Waters, 1953. [Wholly set up and printed in Australia by Coronation Press Pty., Ltd., for the publisher, Joseph Waters, 360 Collins Street, Melbourne.]
£85.00
Book about the Korean War by Australian writer Wilfred G. Burchett

12mo, 338 pp. Sewn paperback. Detached from original black and orange wraps, which carry an illustration of a naked Korean woman being crucified. Text clear and complete. On aged and browned high-acidity paper. Two-page publisher's note (describing his 'dilemma' in publishing the book), and three-page introduction by Burchett, dated 'Kaesong, November 4, 1952.' The blurb begins 'THIS MONSTROUS WAR tells how Syngman Rhee climbed to power; how the U.S. State Department tried to drop him and failed; why Rhee needed a war and why it suited the U.S.

An archive illustrating English coastal defence against French invasion, 1794 to 1796

Author: 
[The Coast Committee of Northumberland; Napoleonic Wars]
The Coast Committee of Northumberland, 1794-6. Archive
Publication details: 
1794-6
£450.00
The Coast Committee of Northumberland, 1794-6. Archive

121 signed bills and receipts from the accounts of the Trustees of the Northumberland Coast Committee (also described as 'Trustees for Guarding the Coast', 'The Honourable Coast Committee Alnwick', 'The Honnble. Coasting Committe [sic]'). Very little is to be discovered about this organisation, with no contemporary references in The Times.

Printed notice from the General Manager of the South Eastern and Chatham Railway's Managing Committee, headed 'Government Control of Railways. Free conveyance of traffic carried on behalf of the Admiralty or War Office'.

Author: 
Francis H. Dent, General Manager, South Eastern and Chatham Railway's Managing Committee [First World War; British Army; Royal Navy; War Office; Admiralty]
South Eastern and Chatham Railway. Printed Notice
Publication details: 
[London.] Dated in print 10 October 1916.
£95.00
South Eastern and Chatham Railway. Printed Notice

Folio, 1 p. Thirty-eight lines. Text clear and complete. On aged and creased paper, with spike-hole at head, with 'ack[nowledge]d 3/10/16' in manuscript. Giving instructions regarding the means by which 'all consignments conveyed by Passenger or Goods Trains over controlled Companies' Lines on behalf of the Admiralty or War Office, [...] be invoiced without charges'. 'The above instructions will also apply to Traffic with Irish Ports when conveyed by Controlled Companies' Steamboats.'

Twenty-six items of ephemera relating to the 1st Battalion The Rifle Brigade, and Peter Kirwan-Taylor, designer of the Lotus Elite car, and assembled during his service in the Brigade as a Lieutenant.

Author: 
Lieutenant Peter Robin Kirwan-Taylor, 1st Battalion The Rifle Brigade (b.1930, designer of the Lotus Elite car) [British Army; military]
Twenty-six items of ephemera relating to the 1st Battalion The Rifle Brigade
Publication details: 
Between 1949 and 1952.
£100.00
Twenty-six items of ephemera relating to the 1st Battalion The Rifle Brigade

Texts of all items clear and complete. The collection on aged paper, with occasional wear and creasing. Includes Kirwan-Taylor's 'Range Barrier Pass Certificate', his 'Combined Leave Pass and Railway Ticket'; an 'Application for a Game Licence in the British Zone of Germany' by him; his 'Final Clearance Certificate.

[Manuscript] An Admiral's Grocery List, mainly sweet things.

Author: 
[Vice-Admiral C.W. Paterson]
An Admiral's Grocery List
Publication details: 
Portsmouth, July 1822-24 January 1823.
£95.00
An Admiral's Grocery List

Paper, 27 x 32cm, one side used, folded,chipped, but clear and complete, 72 entries inclduing "Goods" (multiple) but also tarts, cakes, beer, mutton, barley sugar, candy, sugar, gingerbread, biscuits, bread, butter, almonds, Scotch barley, buns, mince pies (December), etc. Attached: receipt for the payment, 21 x 8cm, signed by Grocer, "Rich[ar]d Way". From the Tonyn/Paterson military and naval archive.

Manuscript Receipt Signed Chas Chubb [Charles Chubb, locksmith and ship's ironmonger] to Admiral C.W. Paterson, with itemised list of purchases

Author: 
Charles Chubb, locksmith and ironmonger [Royal Navy Ship refurbishment]
Manuscript Receipt Signed, Charles Chubb, locksmith and ship's ironmonger
Publication details: 
Portsea, 17 July 1822.
£280.00
Manuscript Receipt Signed, Charles Chubb, locksmith and ship's ironmonger

Slip of paper, 19 x 8cm, Portsea 17 July 1822 | Received of Admiral Patterson [sic] Ten Pounds 11/- 41/2 for Sundries as p [?] Bill | Chas Chubb. ATTACHED (and folded): extensive list of c.50 items purchased by Paterson, c.39 x 15cm, listed both recto and verso, dated 8 Jan 1821-18 June 1822, including Coal scoops, sperm oil, cleaning and repairing items, nails and screws, glass lamp shade etc etc. Presumably Paterson was refurbishing a ship.

Autograph Manuscript Notes for 'Deputy Controller's Course', in official Royal Air Force notebook. With two mimeographed typed documents relating to the Course, including one with introduction by Wing Commander Bradford.

Author: 
A. H. Anderson, L.A.C.; Wing Commander J. R. Bradford, Fighter Command, Controllers' Training Unit [Royal Air Force; Deputy Controllers' Course; Second World War]
[RAF] Autograph Manuscript Notes for 'Deputy Controller's Course
Publication details: 
Notebook dated by Anderson on cover 'Woodlands, Clamp Hill, Stanmore. 27 October 1941.' One of the mimeographed documents dated from Woodlands, 26 June 1941.
£250.00
[RAF] Autograph Manuscript Notes for 'Deputy Controller's Course

4to 'Royal Air Force. Notebook for use in Schools', with Anderson's notes in pencil on all but 11 of its 96 pp. Text clear and complete, written in a neat, tight hand, with diagrams and tables. Fair, on aged paper, with slightly dog-eared corners, in worn and creased wraps. Ownership inscription on front cover of 'A. H. Anderson L.A.C. | Deputy Controller's Course | Woodlands. 27.10.'41'. Providing important first-hand insights into the procedure of the RAF during World War II. Subjects include 'Fighter Command Organisation', 'I.F.F. (Identification friend or foe)', 'P.P.L.

Autograph Memorandum Signed "C.W. Paterson", Vice Admiral of the Blue about his son's interview for the Royal Naval College, Portsmouth, in 1822. With his son's account.

Author: 
C.W. Paterson, Vice Admiral of the Blue
Autograph Memo. Signed "C.W. Paterson", Admiral [Royal Naval College entry]
Publication details: 
1822
£180.00
Autograph Memo. Signed "C.W. Paterson", Admiral [Royal Naval College entry]

One page, c.18 x 11cm, fold marks, and chipped but text clear and complete. He records that the day after the Examination his so, Charles, had partly recovered from the disappointment (of failure presumably) - "deeply affected" because he had set his heart on the College.

Autograph Letter Signed, Amédée de Willot [un comte et général de la Révolution française], to a British Admiral [Was Sidney Smith the only Admiral who could speak French?], hostile to democracy among other things.

Author: 
Amédée de Willot, French General.
Autograph Letter Signed, Amédée de Willot [un comte et général de la Révolution
Publication details: 
Baltimore, [Maryland, USA], 29 October 1810.
£380.00
Autograph Letter Signed, Amédée de Willot [un comte et général de la Révolution

Two pages, 4to, bifolium, fold marks, some discoloration, but text clear and complete. He takes the liberty of introducing "deux voyageurs,pour vous renouveller l'expression de ma reconnaissance: ce jour deux jeunes américains bien Elevés, fils des Colonel Howard [American Revolutionary hero and important in the development of Baltimore, etc] et [Sloan?] ... et ce qui est mieux de la consideration publique ils voyagent pour ... et désirent beaucoup de voir un héros de l'angleterre, c'est pourquoi j'ai pris la liberté de vous les adrèsser.

Part-printed Treasury Document (Receipt) signed S ffairborne

Author: 
Sir Stafford Fairborne (1666-1742), Admiral
Publication details: 
18 April 1716.
£125.00

One page, c.19 x 18cm, some staining and minor damage (mainly a few pinholes) but text clear, trimmed (with loss only to MS figures), part-printed, filled in in MS. Receipt for £12.10s from the Exchequer, three months annuity, granted under An Act for continuing one half part of the Subsidies of Tonnage and Poundage, and other Durties upon Wines, Goods, and Merchandizes imported . . .

Typed Letter Signed ('W. H. H. Southerland') to Carlton Chapman.

Author: 
W. H. H. Southerland [William Henry Hudson Southerland (1852-1933)], Admiral in the United States Navy [Carlton Chapman; Spanish-American War; Cuban Blockade]
W. H. H. Southerland, (1852-1933)], US Admiral, Letter
Publication details: 
16 January 1899. On letterhead of the Navy Department, Office of the Assistant Secretary, Washington.
£125.00
W. H. H. Southerland, (1852-1933)], US Admiral, Letter

4to, 1 p. Fifteen lines of typewritten text and seven-line autograph postscript. Text clear and complete. Good on lightly aged and creased paper. Concerning Southerland's involvement in the Spanish-American War, in which he commanded the gunboat Eagle in the blockade of Cuban ports. He is glad Chapman is pleased with the report. He will send 'the photograph of the ARGONAUTA and one of the SANTO DOMINGO'. He asks for them to be returned, as they are 'amongst the few small mementos I have of the war'. In the postscript he writes that he has 'an 8'' by 10'' photo.

Manuscript Document Signed "Sydney", contents secretarial.

Author: 
Thomas Townsend, Viscount Sydney (1773-1800) [The Hon. William Patterson, Governor of St John Island (Prince Edward Island] 1769-1786
Thomas Townsend, Viscount Sydney, Governorship of St John's Island, Document
Publication details: 
Whitehall, 5 April 1787.
£950.00
Thomas Townsend, Viscount Sydney, Governorship of St John's Island, Document

Two pages (text), two blank (except for the naming of the parties and the date written on p.4) in bifolium, folio, fold marks, 2 closed tears of one inch on folds. "Duplicate" written in top left corner (Sydney's file copy presumably).He acknowledges Patterson's letter of the 5th November 1786 (he officially ceased to be Governor on the 4th) in which Patterson has "stated certain reasons which have induced you to delay the carrying into execution His Majesty's Commands . . . for delivering over the charge of the Island St.

Autograph Letter Signed ('Napier') to Brown ('Dear Sam').

Author: 
Admiral Sir Charles Napier (1786-1860), Royal Navy [Sir Samuel Brown (1776-1852); Sir Thomas Byam Martin (1773-1854)]
Letter bySir Charles Napier mentioning the Sea Wolf.
Publication details: 
16 April 1832; United Services Club, London.
£650.00
Letter bySir Charles Napier mentioning the Sea Wolf.

4to, 3 pp. Bifolium. Twenty-two lines. Text clear and complete. Fair, on aged paper, with minor damage repaired with archival tape. Franked, with broken red wax seal and two postmarks, to 'Captain Saml Brown R.N.', at Inverleith House, Edinburgh. Despite the fact that Martin has 'given the Credit of every improvement in the Service', Napier happens to know 'that other people are deserving of more credit than him', and he wishes to 'bring forward some great names like yours' to 'the Lords & the Country' at the second reading of the Navy Officer Bill.

Typed Note Signed ('S Brownrigg') to Major F. C. Rogers.

Author: 
Rear-Admiral Henry John Studholme Brownrigg (1882-1943) of Shorne
Publication details: 
10 October 1940. Home Guard, Kent Zone, No. 3 Group Headquarters, Rochester.
£38.00

4to, 1 p. On aged and creased paper. He is sorry that they are 'not going to get' Rogers' services. Manuscript addition reads '& wish you all success on the active list'.

Autograph Letter Signed ('Jos: Thackwell') to Hayter.

Author: 
Sir Joseph Thackwell (1781-1859), English army officer [Sir William Goodenough Hayter (1792-1878), Liberal politician]
Publication details: 
2 February 1855; 16 Montague Square, London [United Services Club].
£56.00

12mo, 1 p. Fair, on lightly-aged and creased paper. Written while Hayter was Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury under Palmerston. Thanking him for his letter, and informing him that he will be communicating Hayton's 'kindness' to William Ryan, who, he is sure, 'will gladly accept the appointment'.

Nine volumes of newspaper cuttings, collected by Cuming Walters in his capacity as editor of the Manchester City News, containing all his editorials and articles relating to the Great War, including the whole of his pseudonymous 'Journal of the War'.

Author: 
John Cuming Walters (1863-1933), Editor of the Manchester City News from 1906 to 1932 [The Great War; World War I]
Publication details: 
Complete from 8 August 1914 to 25 October 1919
£250.00

This archive records the day-by-day response to the Great War of a cultured and intelligent English newspaper editor operating outside the Fleet Street hegemony. It charts his change of opinion from initial optimism (8 August 1914: 'The instinct is to strike - it is nature's own law.

Experiments with Small Shot

Author: 
Major W. McClintock, R.A.
Publication details: 
Woolwich: Printed at the Royal Artillery Institution, 1883
£250.00

Reprinted from "Proceedings, Royal Military Institution," No. 6, Vol.XII. 19pp., tall 8vo, original blue wraps, slight;y chipped, and sunned at edges, worn at bottom of spine, mainly good.remnants of album page on back cover. Inscribed "With the Author's Compliments." From an album created by the engineer son of M.C. Meigs, engineer, sometime distinguished Quartermaster General for the Union Army. No copy on COPAC or WorldCat.

Rifles for Large Game. The Trajectories, Time of Flight, Remaining Velocities ., and Striking Energies of Bullets Fired from Large Bore and Express Rifles.

Author: 
Major W. McClintock, R.A.
Publication details: 
Woolwich: Printed at the Royal Artillery Institution, 1884
£350.00

Reprinted from "Proceedings, Royal Military Institution," No. 11, Vol.XII. 4pp., with two folding plates, tall 8vo, original blue printed wraps, sunned at edges, mainly good, remnants of album page on back cover. Inscribed "With the Author's Compliments." From an album created by the engineer son of Montgomery C. Meigs, engineer, sometime distinguished Quartermaster General for the Union Army.

Autograph Letter Signed "Wm Geo. Skyring" to John Ince of the Royal Navy, of Crooms Hill, Greenwich

Author: 
William George Skyring, Naval Officer and surveyor, Captain of HM Surveying VesselS Aetna
Publication details: 
H.M. Surveying Vessel Aetna, 9 Oct. 1833.
£250.00

One page, folio, some tears on fold marks, other minor defects, text clear and complete. "I beg you to let me know by return of Post [phrase underlined] whther you desire to join the Aetna - I heard from Captn. Beaufort this morning that you do - but you have acted with so much indecision that I scarcely know whether to apply or not until more fully assured - For your Mothers sake alone I am perfctly willing to wait an answer - and if you are prepared to join - send me - / Your name at length / Date of original Entry in the Service / Name of last Ship / Rating on her.

Treaty for the Limitation and Reduction of Naval Armaments, between the American, French, British, Italian and Japanese governments, signed by eleven of the plenipotentiaries, including three prime ministers (Macdonald, Briand and Wakatsuki).

Author: 
J. Ramsay Macdonald; Aristide Briand; Reijiro Wakatsuki; Charles F. Adams III; Dwight W. Morrow; [London Naval Conference, 1930; Treaty for the Limitation and Reduction of Naval Armaments]
Publication details: 
London; 27 April 1930.
£500.00

8vo, 34 pp + blank last page. Unbound and stapled. Fair, with central vertical fold, on slightly-aged paper, with light staining to the first and last pages. Signed on the first page by [three Americans] Henry L. Stimson; Charles F. Adams III; Dwight W. Morrow; [one French] Aristide Briand; [two British] J. Ramsay Macdonald; A. V. Alexander; [one Italian] Giuseppe Sirianni; [and all four Japanese representatives] Reijiro Wakatsuki; Takeshi Takarabe; Tsuneo Matsudaira and Matsuzo Nagai.

Two Autograph Letters Signed ('Charles Gibson' and 'Charles E. Gibson') by Gibson, as Lieutenant and Adjutant of the 49th, written to his 'Aunt Kate' from Sebastopol during the Crimean War, including a description of horse races during the armistice.

Author: 
Captain Charles Edgar Gibson, of the 49th Regiment of Foot [Crimean War; Sebastopol]
Publication details: 
Letter One: 'Camp Sebastopol. January 24th. 1856.' Letter Two: 'Camp 49 Regt Sebastopol. March 31st.'
£750.00

Letter One: 12mo, 4 pp. Bifolium. 75 lines of text. Clear and complete. Good, on lightly-aged paper. Expresses regret at 'Morten Edens melancholy death, so young & so clever as he was'. 'There is great talk of Peace. We hardly know if to believe it - few will be sorry should the news prove to be true, as I think most of us have had enough fighting. Apparently refers to his sweetheart under a cypher. She has not written to him, but 'London gaieties have little time for correspondence'. 'The weather here is something awful - cold & wet, fogs & sleet.

Ammunition Factory Institute. Dum Dum. Grocery Department. Price List. Established January 1907.

Author: 
Ammunition Factory Institute, Dum Dum, Calcutta
Publication details: 
Catholic Orphan Press. [Calcutta: Dum Dum Ammunition Factory Institute, 1907.]
£125.00

4to, 12 pp. Stapled pamphlet. In original green printed wraps. Text clear and complete. On aged, creased and spotted paper, with rusted staples. Giving the prices ('Rs. As. P') of items ranging from 'Asparagus French tin' to 'Zymale tooth paste'. The last page lists prices for cigars, cigarettes and tobacco. Ownership signature of 'Mr. Lewis' at head of front wrap.

Autograph Letter Signed ('James Donnet') to Mrs Hollingworth, discussing autograph collecting.

Author: 
Sir James Donnet [Sir James John Louis Donnet] (1816-1905), inspector-general of hospitals and fleets [autograph collecting]
Publication details: 
24 March 1895; on letterhead of 5 Park Road, Bognor, Sussex.
£38.00

12mo, 4 pp. Text clear and complete. Very good on lightly-aged paper, with thin strip from stub still adhering. Thanking her for 'sending me the acceptable autographs you have. Though seemingly scraps of paper they possess for the initiated a value, for I believe every individual to be possessed of a romance which opportunity and occasion bring to the fore and make of him a personage whose writing is worthy of preservation. The diamond in its mine is of no value, but when found, cut, and set in its golden framework, it is prized and esteemed'. Defends 'the collector' against criticism.

One Autograph Letter Signed ('E. Batsch'), three Typed Letters Signed (two 'Batsch.' and one 'Ernst Batsch'), all to Bower; with two typed book reviews by Batsch (one marked 'translation').

Author: 
Rear Admiral Ernst Batsch (1879-1948) of the Imperial German Navy [Sir Graham Bower KCMG [Sir Graham John Bower] (1848-1933)]
Publication details: 
All items between 1930 and 1932. The first two letters from Kurfuerstenstrasse Nr.81.b, Berlin, W.62; the last two from Enzianstrasse Nr.1, Berlin-Lichterfelde, W.
£650.00

An interesting correspondence, from one maritime expert to another, casting light on German naval attitudes in the period following the Great War. Batsch's father, Admiral Karl Ferdinand Batsch (1831-1898), is regarded as one of the founders of the German navy. Bower, who served for twenty years in the Royal Navy, retiring in 1884 with the rank of Commander, is best known as Imperial Secretary in South Africa at the time of the Jameson Raid. Following the First World War he established himself as an expert in international law relating to naval matters.

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