WARS

[ David Ricardo, economist; Minchinhampton; Napoleonic Wars ] Manuscript List of Subscribers to a Public Dinner for local "Labouring people" to celebarte the defeat of Napoleon.

Author: 
[ David Ricardo, economist; Minchinhampton; Napoleonic Wars ]
Publication details: 
Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire, [1815/16]
£580.00

Three pages, folio, bifolium, fold marks, aged, some chipping, text complete and clear.

[William Pitt the Younger, Prime Minister.] Autograph Signature as frank to an envelope addressed by him to 'Dr. Leycester' of Lincoln's Inn, also carrying Pitt's seal in red wax.

Author: 
William Pitt the Younger (1759-1806), Tory Prime Minister who distinguished himself during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars [Dr Hugh Leycester (1748-1836) of Lincoln's Inn]
Publication details: 
May 1790
£165.00

7 x 21 cm panel from the front of an envelope, carrying the frank in Pitt's autograph, with 5.5 x 3 cm rectangle extending vertically from the bottom, with Pitt's seal in red wax adhering at the foot. Laid down on a leaf from an album. In fair condition, lightly aged, with the seal somewhat cracked and with a few small fragments having chipped away. The frank, written in a bold hand, reads: 'May 1790 | Dr. Leycester | Serles Stair Case | Lincolns Inn'. The signature is written in the customary fashion, between two lines at bottom left: 'W Pitt'.

[Lord Sidmouth; Prime Minister.] Autograph Letter Signed ('Sidmouth') to an unnamed peer and friend, expressing gratitude at his solicitude over the illness of his daughters.

Author: 
Lord Sidmouth [Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth] (1757-1844), British Prime Minister
Publication details: 
Richmond Park. 17 November 1832.
£80.00

2pp., 12mo. In fair condition, aged and ruckled. A somewhat florid letter of thanks, addressed to 'My dear Lord', and with the valediction 'Your affectionate Friend, | Sidmouth'. The letter begins: 'Your kind Solicitude on Account of my two Daughters is just what I should have expected from your long experienc'd Friendship.' The girls have had 'a merciful Deliverance from a great & imminent Danger, in Comparision with which the Degree in which They have suffer'd, tho' not inconsiderable in itself, is a Subject of heartfelt Thankfulness from me & all my Family'.

[Parliamentary expenditure in the Napoleonic Wars, including 'the Sum wanted for American Loyalists'.] 'Accounts and Estimates: Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be printed, 11 November 1813.'

Author: 
C. Arbuthnot [Charles Arbuthnot (1767-1850)], Joint Secretary to the Treasury [House of Commons; Houses of Parliament; Napoleonic Wars]
Publication details: 
'Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be printed, 11 November 1813.'
£320.00

6 + [1]pp., folio. Side stitched and unbound. In fair condition, lightly aged and worn, with light staining at foot of first page. The contents of the document are given as follows: '1. - Account of Sums advanced, for Public Services, from the Civil List Revenues, pursuant to Addresses, not being part of its Ordinary Expenditure. | 2. - Account of Sums advanced, for Public Services, from the Civil List Revenues, not being part of its Ordinary Expenditure. | 3.

[ Vice-Admiral Sir Roger Curtis, British naval hero. ] Autograph Signature ('Roger Curtis') cut from letter.

Author: 
Vice-Admiral Sir Roger Curtis (1746-1816), officer of the Royal Navy, during the American Revolutionary War and the French Revolutionary Wars, who distinguished himself at the Great Siege of Gibraltar
Publication details: 
No date or place.
£25.00

On a 1.75 x 4.25 cm rectangle of laid paper cut from letter. In fair condition, lightly aged, with paper from mount on reverse. A neat, firm signature, reading 'Roger Curtis'.

[ Napoleonic Wars: number of Dutch newspaper published during French occupation of Holland. ] Journal du Department des Bouches de la Meuse. | Dagblad van het Departement der Monden van de Maas.

Author: 
Journal du Department des Bouches de la Meuse, la Haye [ Dagblad van het Departement der Monden van de Maas, den Haag ] [ Napoleonic Wars; French occupation of Holland ]
Publication details: 
No. 40. 9 February 1813. A la Haye [ the Hague ], de l'Imprimerie de G. Vosmaer. Se vend chez B. Scheurleer le jeune, Veenestraat S. No. 152,
£150.00

4pp., 4to. Bifolium. In good condition, lightly aged and worn. With two tax stamps. Laid out in double column, with the Dutch text on the right, and a French translation on the left. Begins with official announcements ('Administration. | Renovation.' and 'Contribution Fonciere sur les Proprietes Baties'), followed by 'Nouvelles - Politique' ('Baviere', 'Angleterre' and 'Empire-Francais') and ending with 'Varietes'.

[ Sir Philip Charles Durham, British naval hero. ] Autograph Signature ('P. C. Durham') to manuscript document naming 'two Gentlemen appointed to act as Lieutenants'.

Author: 
Sir Philip Charles Durham [ Admiral Sir Philip Charles Calderwood Henderson Durham ] (1763-1845), Royal Navy officer in the American War of Independence and Napoleonic Wars
Publication details: 
Without place or date. On paper watermarked 1812.
£120.00

1p., 4to. In fair condition, on aged and creased paper. The body of the letter is written in another hand, and reads: 'The names of two Gentlemen appointed to act as Lieutenants whom Admiral Durham is particularly desirous of getting confirmed as Lieutenants. - | Mr Brigss - Vacancy. Lt Gordon 1st on Admiralty List appd to Spider - | Mr Maltman - do - Lt Luke promoted by Admiralty order -'. Beneath this Durham has signed: 'P. C. Durham'.

[ Edward Morrison, Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica. ] Autograph Signature ('Edw: Morrison Lt: Govr | Commr of the Forces at Jamaica <?>', on part of official letter concerning the court martial of Lieutenant Robert Irvine.

Author: 
Edward Morrison, Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica, 1811-1813
Publication details: 
Without place or date. [ Jamaica, 1811. ]
£45.00

On both sides of a 13 x 20 cm piece of paper cut from an official letter. In fair condition, on aged and worn paper. The recto reads: '[…] Having received the enclosed Papers since I wrote to you on the 27th inst transmitting the Proceedings of a General Court Martial on the Trial of Lieutt Irwine of the 55th Regt. I think it right to transmit them to you as they are documents relating to […]'. Reverse reads: 'I have the honour to be Sir | Your most obedient humble | Servant | Edw: Morrison Lt: Govr | Commr of the Forces at Jamaica <?>'.

[ Sir Henry Torrens, Adjutant-General to the Forces. ] Autograph Note Signed ('Henry Torrens | Mil Secty.'), regarding the payment of 'the Extraordinaries of the Army'

Author: 
Major-General Sir Henry Torrens KCB (1779-1828), Irish soldier, Adjutant-General to the Forces
Publication details: 
Place indecipherable. 15 August <1809?>.
£180.00

1p., 16mo. In fair condition, on aged and worn paper. Reads: Dear Sir - | I am directerd by the Commander of ther Forces to request that you will pay the enclosed on account of the Extraordinaries of th Army.' Torrens was Military Secretary between 1809 and 1820.

[ Admiral Sir Philip Charles Durham, British naval hero. ] Autograph Letter Signed ('P. C. Durham') to a Sea Lord, complaining of his treatment following the capture of Guadeloupe, and seeking preferment for his nephew.

Author: 
Admiral Sir Philip Charles Durham [ Admiral Sir Philip Charles Calderwood Henderson Durham ] (1763-1845), Royal Navy officer in the American War of Independence and Napoleonic Wars
Publication details: 
[ From Guadeloupe ('this Country') .] 15 August [ 1815 ]. No place.
£650.00

4pp., 12mo. Bifolium. In fair condition, on lightly aged and worn paper. Docketed on reverse of second leaf: '15 Augt. 1815. | Sir P. C. Durham'. According to the DNB, Durham, having 'cleared the West Indies of American cruisers', 'in June and August 1815 co-operated in the reduction of Martinique and Guadeloupe, at which place the last French flag was struck to Durham, as the first had been'.

Autograph Letter Signed ('MacDonald'), in French, to 'Monsieur le Major Walter Scott' (son of the novelist).

Author: 
Étienne Jacques Joseph Alexandre MacDonald, 1st duke of Taranto (1765-1840), Marshal of France during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars [ Sir Walter Scott (1801-1847), 2nd Baronet ]
Publication details: 
Paris. 24 September 1828.
£300.00

1p., 12mo. Bifolium. Addressed on reverse of second leaf, with broken wafer, 'A Monsieur | Monsieur le Major Walter Scott | Hotel Mirabeau rue | de la Paix | A Paris', and franked 'Mal. Duc de Tarento'. On aged and lightly ruckled and damp-stained paper. 11 lines of text. He writes in the hope that Scott and his 'Lady' will be able to come 'pour diner chez moi en famille seulement'. MacDonald was of Jacobite stock, and a near-relative of Flora MacDonald.

[ General Thomas Graham, Lord Lynedoch. ] Autograph Letter Signed ('Thomas Graham') to an unnamed party, regarding a list of individuals (Commissioners of Supply?), with reference to Lord Keith and an act of parliament.

Author: 
General Thomas Graham, 1st Baron Lynedoch [ Lord Lynedoch ] (1748-1843), Scottish politician and distinguished soldier
Publication details: 
[ Docketed as from Stratton Street, with date 31 January 1803. ]
£180.00

2pp., 4to. Bifolium. In fair condition, lightly aged. Written in a difficult hand. Docketed on reverse of second leaf in a neat hand, explaining the context: 'Genl Thomas Graham | Stratton Street | 31 Janry 1803 | wrote him first febry that Peers could not be Commssrs of Supply | 1803 | 3 Febry wrote L[or]d Keith.' Graham's letter reads: 'There is the list – except two names wch. L[or]d Keith wishes to have inserted & the mem[orandu]m. Of wch. I have mislaid – one is the Baillie of Kinkardine [sic] for the time being I think – but it wd.

[ Rear-Admiral Sir Nesbit Josiah Willoughby, naval hero ('The Immortal'). ] Three secretarial letters, all signed 'N. J. Willoughby', to 'Sir John', regarding his book 'Extracts from Holy Writ', and why he is not a 'good man'.

Author: 
Sir Nesbit Josiah Willoughby (1777-1849), Royal Navy Rear-Admiral and naval hero ('The Immortal')
Publication details: 
6 Chapel Street, Grosvenor Square [ London ]. Letters to Hardy dated 27 and 31 September 1839. Letter to unnamed party dated 3 October 1839.
£320.00

All three letters are on bifoliums, and they total 11pp., 12mo. In fair condition, lightly aged and worn. They are all written by a secretary (for reasons made obvious below), and signed by Willoughby. ONE: To 'Sir John', 27 September 1839. 4pp., 12mo. He is sending him copies of his work, 'The one dedicated to Seamen and Sailors meant for Greenwich [i.e.

[ Thomas Spring Rice, 1st Baron Monteagle of Brandon. ] Autograph Letter Signed ('T Spring Rice'), as Secretary of the Treasury, a Treasury Circular, re 'French Claims', 'Calling on Supplemental Claimants to present appeals within a fornight'.

Author: 
Thomas Spring Rice, 1st Baron Monteagle of Brandon (1790-1866), Whig politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1835-1839
Publication details: 
'Treasury Chambers' [ Whitehall, London ]. 17 December 1833.
£150.00

3pp., folio. Bifolium. In poor condition, worn and stained. A corner has been cut away from both leaves. Addressee's name at foot of first leaf, difficult to decipher, but appearing to read: 'The Rep[resentati]ve of J D de Warter at Mr Davis | Parliament Street'. Docketed: 'Treasury Circular of 17th Decemr 1833 | Calling on Supplemental Claimants to present appeals within a fortnight'. At upper left: 'Claims rejected'.

[ Sir Henry Bunbury, soldier, historian and antiquary. ] Autograph Note Signed ('Hy Bunbury'), regarding Robert Craufurd, Robert Anstruther and the posiition of 'Depy. Quarter Master General [ in the 16th Queen's light dragoons ].

Author: 
Sir Henry Bunbury [ Sir Henry Edward Bunbury ], 7th Baronet, soldier, historian and antiquary
Publication details: 
Barton [ Barton Hall, Suffolk ]. 28 October 1854.
£95.00

1p., 12mo. In fair condition, aged and worn, with traces of mount adhering to the blank reverse. The male recipient is not identified. The letter reads: 'Sir, | My memory hardly serves me so as to answer your enquiry positively. I do not recollect Robert Craufurd in Holland in '99; and I am pretty sure that Robt: Anstruther, who died at Corunna, was our Depy. Quarter Master General'. According to Bunbury's entry in the Oxford DNB, he purchased 'a captaincy in the 16th Queen's light dragoons on 16 August 1797.

[ Book] Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy. The First Indian Knight and Baronet (1783-1859)

Author: 
Jehangir R.P. Mody
Publication details: 
Bombay 1959.
£55.00

Pp.x.188, 8vo, folding genealogy of his family at back, decorated black cloth gt., hinge strain at half-title, mainly good condition. Copies at five UK and USA libraries, and Bologna

Keywords:

[ Napoleon Bonaparte. ] Autograph Letter Signed from 'J Thompson | late Capt. 4th East York L[ocal]. M[ilitia].', presenting John Crossley of Scaitcliffe with 'Bonaparte's Star of the Legion of Honour'.

Author: 
Captain J. Thompson, 'late Capt. 4th East York L[ocal]. M[ilitia].' [ John Crossley of Scaitcliffe, near Rochdale, Lancashire; Napoleon Bonaparte ]
Publication details: 
Manchester. 12 December 1822.
£220.00

1p., 4to. Bifolium. In good condition, lightly aged. The reverse of the second leaf, with seal in black wax, is addressed to 'Capt Crossley | &c &c &c | O L M', and the foot of the letter to 'John Crossley Esqre | Capt: Oldham L: M:' (Crossley, the commanding officer of the Oldham Regiment of Local Militia, built up a notable collection of military memorabilia, which was dispersed after his death.) The letter begins: 'With this you will receive the interesting little "Bijou" - Bonaparte's Star of the Legion of Honour for which I beg a place in your curious Collection.

[ The Crossley Collection. ] Autograph Letter Signed from 'Thos Hampson', presenting John Crossley of Rochdale with a snuff box made by 'the French prisoners confined in this country during the late war'.

Author: 
[ John Crossley of Scaitcliffe, near Rochdale, Lancashire, collector; Napoleonic Wars ] Thomas Hampson of Rochdale
Publication details: 
Drake Street, Rochdale. 14 October 1822.
£45.00

1p., folio. Bifolium. In good condition, lightly-aged with strip from stub adhering to one edge. Addressed on reverse of second leaf 'To | John Crossley Esqr. | Rochdale.' Crossley, the commanding officer of the Oldham Regiment of Local Militia, built up a notable collection of military memorabilia, which was dispersed after his death.

[ George Rose, Tory politician. ] Autograph Letter Signed ('G Rose') to unnamed recipient [ H. S. Alves? ], commenting in detail on a naval tract he has sent him.

Author: 
George Rose (1744-1818), Scottish politician, reformer, anti-abolitionist, friend of William Pitt the Younger and Admiral Nelson [ Robert Saunders Dundas, Viscount Melville; Henry Scott Alves ]
Publication details: 
'Wednesday Morng'. Without date or place.
£150.00

3pp., 4to. In good condition, each of the two leaves in neatly-trimmed remains of a windowpane mount. Headed 'Private' by Rose and 'Rec[eiv]ed' by the recipient, who has sent Rose a copy of a tract he has written on naval matters. (The reference in the letter to Lord Melville, who was Lord of the Admiralty from 1812 to 1827, may suggest Melville's secretary H. S.

[ Edward Daniel Clarke, Professor of Mineralogy at Cambridge University. ] Autograph Letter Signed ('Edward Daniel Clarke') [ to the Admiralty ] on behalf of his kinsman Lieutenant Edward Chappell, who has been delayed in his return to his ship.

Author: 
Edward Daniel Clarke (1769-1822), antiquary, traveller, and Professor of Mineralogy in Cambridge University
Publication details: 
Trumpington. 12 February 1814.
£56.00

3pp., 4to. In good condition, lightly-aged, on two leaves each neatly cut out of a windowpane mount. He feels apprehensive at writing to a stranger, but feels compelled to do so, because of 'the greater anxiety I feel for the welfare of a young relation now beneath my roof, Mr. Edward Chappell, Lieutenant of the Rosamond'.

[ Napoleon General; Battle of Ulm ] Note Signed "L.G. Suchet", text in secretarial hand, with further autograph note signed "Soult"note

Author: 
Louis-Gabriel Suchet, (1770-1826), Duke of Albufera (Duc d'Albuféra), was a Marshal of France and one of Napoleon's most brilliant generals. [ Marshal Soult ] .
Publication details: 
Le 3 Thermidor An 12 [July/August 1805 prob.]
£850.00

One page, 8vo, fold marks, corners chipped, mainly good condition. Part-printed (Heading "Au Quartier General de [wincille - in MS] Le {date as above] de la Republique francaise || Suchet General de Division Inspecteur General d'Infanterie."). Text in secretarial hand as follows: "A monsieur le marechal, | J'ai l'honneur de vous adresser un extrait des rapports qu'a recu le colonel du 17eme Regiment d'Infanterie legere, de ses officiers embarque.

[ Prince Constantin Czartoryski, Polish patriot. ] Autograph Letter Signed ('Pce. Constantin Czartoryski'), in French, requesting that a letter be forwarded to his brother who is en route to Italy.

Author: 
Prince Constantin Czartoryski [ Konstanty Adam Czartoryski ] (1777-1866), Polish patriot who served under Napoleon, raising a regiment at his own expence
Publication details: 
Paris, 26 September 1819.
£250.00

For more information on Czartoryski, see his entry in the Annual Register for 1860, p.407. 1p., 12mo. On bifolium. In good condition, on lightly-aged paper. The recipient is not named, but is an Italian-speaker, as the letter is docketted 'Parigi 1819 | 26 Sett. | Princp. Cost. Czartoryski'. Fifteen lines of text, requesting, in florid tones, that a letter be forwarded to his brother, 'qui doit être dans ce moment ci à Livourne pour y faire prendre des bains'.

[ The Duke of Kent as Governor of Gibraltar, in the build up to the Garrison Mutiny of 1802. ] Letter in a Secretarial Hand, signed in Autograph ('Edward'), to Lieut-Col. Lethbridge, one of his 'oldest military friends', regarding the '.

Author: 
The Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767-1820), son of King George III and father of Queen Victoria [ Lieut-Col. Robert Lethbridge, 60th Regiment of Foot; Gibraltar Garrison Mutiny, 1802 ]
Publication details: 
Gibraltar. 31 October 1802.
£500.00

A strict disciplinarian, the Duke was appointed Governor of Gibraltar in March 1802 and, as this letter describes, immediately set about dealing with what he considered the various abuses of the Garrison. His harsh discipline would precipitate a mutiny by soldiers in his own and the 25th Regiment on Christmas Eve 1802. The Duke of York, Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, would recall him in May 1803 after receiving reports of the mutiny, but despite this direct order he would refuse to return to England until his successor arrived.

[ The British Army in the Peninsular War. ] Autograph Letter Signed (twice 'J. Barker') from Deputy Storekeeper General John Barker to British Minister at Lisbon [ Charles Stuart ], giving details of 'Stores shipped by this Department' to Portugal.

Author: 
John Barker, Deputy Storekeeper General, Storekeeper General's Office, London [ Charles Stuart (1779-1845), 1st Baron Stuart de Rothesay; Peninsular War ]
Publication details: 
Storekeeper General's Office [ 23 Great George Street ], London. 28 January 1812.
£180.00

2pp., folio. In fair condition, with light signs of age and wear. On first leaf of bifolium, the second leaf docketted in pencil. In fair condition, with light signs of age and wear. Detailed letter, filling two whole folio pages, beginning: 'Sir. | In the absence of the Storekeeper General I have the honour to refer you to his letters of the 12th. Novr. 19th. & 31st. Decr.

[ Admiral Edward Thornbrough. ] Autograph Signature ('Edwd: Thornbrough') on part of letter.

Author: 
Edward Thornbrough (1754-1834), Royal Navy Admiral, who served with distinction in the American War of Independence
Publication details: 
No place. [ August 1816.]
£180.00

On one side of 13 x 9 cm. piece of paper cut from letter. In good condition, on aged paper. The date 'Augt: 1816' is at bottom right, apparently in another hand. Reads: '<...> the men all examined - | <...> their being sent out in | <...> are sad set to keep on board | <...>pose we shall soon see | <...>il for the distribution of | <...>to keep my Cruizers out | <...>way her Bowsprit but | <...> few Days Lieutt. Jewry is | <...>man | Yours most faithfully | Edwd: Thornborough'.

[ Admiral of the Fleet James Gambier, 1st Baron Gambier. ] Autograph Signature ('Gambier'), given immediately after the Battle of Basque Roads.

Author: 
Admiral of the Fleet James Gambier (1756-1833), 1st Baron Gambier, Lord Commander of the Admiralty and Governor of Newfoundland
Publication details: 
'Given on board the Caledonia in Basque Roads 17 April 1809.'
£30.00

On piece of 6 x 12 cm laid and watermarked paper, cut from an order. In fair condition, aged and worn. Above the good firm signature, in another hand, is: 'Given onboard [sic] the Caledonia in Basque Roads 17 April 1809'. At foot, in a nineteenth-century hand: 'Gambier's autograph'. Gambier's actions during the battle, the victory in which was credited to him rather than Lord Cochrane, led to a Court Martial. Gambier was exonerated, and Cochrane's naval career ended.

[ John, Lord Belasyse. ] Extensive manuscript 'Abstract of the Will and Codicil of the Right Honble John Lord Belasyse from the Probate thereof granted the 7th. May 1690', mentioning estates in Yorkshire, London, Middlesex, Nottingham and Durham.

Author: 
John Belasyse (1614-1689), Lord Belasyse, Royalist nobleman in the English Civil War, imprisoned during the Popish Plot
Publication details: 
Will of 22 April 1689. Probate granted by the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 7 May 1690. Abstract dating from the eighteenth century. (watermark includes "GR")
£150.00

13pp., large (41.5 x 33 cm) 4to. In good condition, lightly aged, on good Britannia paper. In worn wraps, with printed slip describing the item from a bookseller's catalogue (Henry Grey, 1901, 45s), and docketed at back. Neatly and closely written out in a clerk's hand. At end: 'The Abstract of this Will and Codicil is taken from the Probate thereof Granted by the Prerogative Court of Canterbury to Anne Lady Belasyse Relict of the said John Lord Belasyse and One of the Executors the 7th. of May 1690'. Belasyse's second wife was the daughter of the Marquess of Winchester.

[Royal Navy] Clipped Signature, "WParker | Admiral".

Author: 
Admiral William Parker (1781-1866), naval officer in Nelson's time and beyond.
Publication details: 
No place or date
£25.00

Paper, blue, 9 x 5cm, irregular shape, sl. chipped in two places, mainly good conditon. On the verso, the words "Gentlemen I beg [...] the receip[t?]".

[Royal Navy] Clipped Signature, "WParker | Admiral".

Author: 
Admiral William Parker (1781-1866), naval officer in Nelson's time and beyond.
Publication details: 
No place or date
£25.00

Paper, blue, 9 x 5cm, irregular shape, sl. chipped in two places, mainly good conditon. On the verso, the words "Gentlemen I beg [...] the receip[t?]".

[ Vice Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood. ] Contemporary manuscript official copy letter to Vice Admiral Duckworth, regarding Royal Navy ships in the Mediterranean respecting the neutrality of Portuguese ships. With manuscript extract from treaty.

Author: 
Vice Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood (1748-1810), 1st Baron Collingwood, commander at Trafalgar after Nelson's death [ Sir William Richard Cosway; Sir John Thomas Duckworth (1748-1817), 1st Baronet ]
Publication details: 
'Given on board the Ocean off Cadiz | 12th. August 1806'.
£180.00

Both items in very good condition, on lightly-aged paper. ONE: Copy letter. 2pp., folio. On paper with watermark 'JOHN HOWARD | 1804'. Ends: 'To | Sir J. T. Duckworth K.B. | Vice Admiral of the White | &ca. &ca. &ca. | Given on board the Ocean off Cadiz | 12th. August 1806 | (signed) Collingwood | By Command of the Vice Admiral | (signed) W R Cosway | A Copy -'.

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